The Regional Rail Link (RRL) was a project to build a 47.5 kilometre length of railway through the western suburbs of Melbourne, Victoria, the main aim of which was to separate regional V/Line Ballarat, Bendigo and Geelong services from the electrified Melbourne suburban services, thereby increasing rail capacity and reliability. The project involved the building of an extra pair of tracks from Southern Cross station to Sunshine, parallel to the Western line, and a new double-track line from Deer Park, which joins with the Warrnambool line west of Werribee, near the site of the former Manor railway station. New stations were built at Tarneit and Wyndham Vale, while West Footscray and Sunshine stations were rebuilt. Additional platforms were built at Southern Cross and Footscray stations, and two level crossings near Sunshine were replaced by grade separations. The most used station before its construction, North Melbourne, was excluded from the project despite being the main connection hub for regional travellers not needing to go all the way to Southern Cross, and now requires regional rail link customers to change at Footscray.

The project was managed by the Regional Rail Link Authority, on behalf of the Victorian Government,[1] and, at the time, was the largest transport infrastructure project being undertaken in Australia.[2] Construction commenced in 2009 and was fully completed in June 2015, with the opening of the section of track from Manor junction to Deer Park West junction.

According to the 2012 PTV Network Development Plan, by December 2032 the RRL will be part of an electrified line from Grovedale, Geelong to South Yarra railway station, with a branch line to Avalon Airport, thereby integrating the Geelong line into the metropolitan system.[3]


New platforms at Footscray station in May 2014
Rebuilt West Footscray station in May 2014
Rebuilt Sunshine station in May 2014


Following the rail infrastructure improvements provided by the Regional Fast Rail project, and subsequent growth in passengers and services, there was an increase in congestion in the Melbourne suburban area, where trains operated by V/Line shared tracks with Metro Trains Melbourne suburban trains, caused increasing delays on rail services.[4] Late running by V/Line or metropolitan rail services affected the reliability of other trains, and V/Line trains, running express through most suburban stations, limited the frequency, and affected the timekeeping, of stopping suburban trains. After major disruptions each operator might blame the other for causing the problem.[5][6]

A separate line for regional trains between Geelong and Melbourne, then called the "Tarneit Link", was included as a possible long-term rail option in the Bracks government's 2006 Meeting Our Transport Challenges report. Costed at around $500 million, the link was also recommended in Rod Eddington's East-West Link Needs Assessment study, released in April 2008.[7][8] By November 2008 the link between Deer Park and West Werribee was estimated to cost $1.5 billion.[9]

Official status

The project was expanded and re-branded as the Regional Rail Link when announced as part of the Brumby Government's Victorian Transport Plan of December 2008.[10] With a revised aim of separating all regional trains between Southern Cross and Geelong, Ballarat, and Bendigo, from suburban rail movements, the proposed route was from Southern Cross through Sunshine and Tarneit to West Werribee.

In May 2009 the project reached full funding, gaining the required allocation of $3.2 billion from the 2009 Federal budget, adding to funds to be provided by the Victorian Government.[11][12]

Several route options were investigated. One proposal involved the acquisition of up to 49 properties in Railway Place, Footscray to widen the existing railway corridor, and local residents launched a campaign against that proposal in May 2010.[citation needed] Other options floated were the sharing of tracks with freight trains in the existing Bunbury Street tunnel, or the construction of a second rail tunnel under Footscray[13] A preliminary route between Sunshine and Werribee was released for public consultation in June 2009.[14][15]

In July 2010, the final route through Footscray was announced by the state government.[16] Heading away from Melbourne, the pair of Regional Rail Link tracks run south of the current four suburban tracks until after the line has crossed the Maribyrnong River, where a new bridge was built. After crossing the river, the line passes over the top of the Newport bound suburban tracks on a flyover, and then runs between each pair of suburban tracks to Footscray station. At Footscray the line uses the existing platforms 1 and 2 (since renumbered 3 and 4), and then run on resumed land to the south of the suburban line to Sunshine, past Middle Footscray and West Footscray stations. Suburban trains towards Sunshine use the existing tracks except at Footscray, where two new platforms were built north of the four existing platforms.

To accommodate the final route, 26 homes and 84 businesses on Buckley Street, Footscray were acquired.[17] Many residents did not find out their homes were to be acquired until told by journalists, waiting up to 24 hours for official notification from Department of Transport representatives.[18] A Government spokeswoman said "every effort" had been made to contact the households affected, but bureaucrats had abandoned their planned visit to deliver the bad news because they did not want to be filmed by the media.[19] The proposals would also have acquired 136m² the heritage listed HV McKay Memorial Gardens, (Australia's oldest remaining industrial garden) as part of a grade separation along Anderson Road in Sunshine;[20] after community resistance and lobbying by Brimbank City Council, plans were altered to reduce the acquisition of the gardens to approximately 5m².[citation needed]

Baillieu government review

In February 2011, the incoming Baillieu government announced the project was under review, citing poor planning and a blow-out in costs. After the review, the Baillieu government estimated the price tag for the line to be $880 million more than stated by the outgoing Brumby government.[21] In November 2011, the secretary of the Victorian Department of Transport, Jim Betts, admitted that the lack of a mature plan, and the urgency of spending the money provided by the federal government as part of its economic stimulus package,[22] meant that there had been a rush to finalise the financial arrangements of the scheme. He commented that "the budget for that project was basically haggled over between the state and the commonwealth one weekend and we end up with a number written on the back of an envelope".[23]


Southern Cross station platforms 15 & 16 northern concourse entrance in December 2013

Construction commenced in August 2009.[24] The works were divided into seven packages - an overall railway signalling and control systems contract, and six sections of track:


  • 2 July 2011: Construction begins, with the shifting of existing railway tracks between Sunshine and Tottenham[33][34]
  • 18 July 2011: Sydenham, Ballarat and Bendigo lines re-open after being closed for 2 weeks during the Victorian School Holidays to allow construction of the RRL[33]
  • Early 2013: fitout of platforms 15/16 at Southern Cross completed
  • 14 October 2013: Rebuilt West Footscray Station opened
  • 22 December 2013: platforms 15/16 at Southern Cross and approximately 5 kilometres of track from South Kensington opened[35]
  • 20 January 2014: new platforms 1/2 opened at Footscray
  • 28 April 2014: new platforms 3/4 opened at Sunshine[36]
  • 16 July 2014: commissioning of the new dedicated V/line tracks between South Kensington and Sunshine
  • 16 July 2014: new platforms 3/4 at Footscray opened
  • 6 October 2014: first test train operated on the new line via Tarneit[37]
  • 19 April 2015: originally scheduled opening of the new route and stations at Tarneit and Wyndham Vale, but delayed due to a lack of V/Line trains[38]
  • 21 June 2015: completion including opening of Tarneit and Wyndham Vale stations.[39]


Cost and benefits

In May 2010, the estimated cost was $4.3 billion, and economic benefits were estimated to be $6.2 billion.[40]

In April 2011 the incoming Baillieu government stated it would cost closer to $5 billion and take two years longer to build.[41] In July 2011 the cost was estimated at $5.3 billion with a completion date of 2016.[33]

In the 2015/16 State Budget the final cost of the project was given as $3.65 billion, down from the previous estimate of $4.1 billion.[42]

However, the final cost of property acquisitions related to the project will not be fully known until December 2018, so this cost estimate may increase. [43]


All passenger trains on the Ballarat, Bendigo and Geelong lines use the Regional Rail Link from Sunshine to Melbourne, solving a lot of the capacity problem, and the conflicts encountered when those services share tracks with metropolitan trains.[44] The link allows more regional and metropolitan trains to run, which, combined with the purchase of new rolling stock,[45][46] has helped provide additional peak hour passenger capacity on regional services, particularly those from Geelong and Ballarat, and freed up capacity on Melbourne suburban tracks to allow more trains to run.

However, far from providing a bypass of the suburban network for Geelong line trains, those services have become suburban trains on the Tarneit section of the RRL, being the only ones which can serve those stations. Tarneit station rapidly became the second busiest on the V/Line network after Southern Cross.[47] That has worsened the chronic overcrowding on peak-hour Geelong trains, as well as slowing of journey times.[48][49] As a result, there have been calls for the other three planned stations on the Tarneit section of the RRL to be constructed.[47]

As part of the project, the partially-built platforms 15 and 16 at Southern Cross station were completed, which increased the number of trains the station can handle. However, no platforms were provided for RRL trains at North Melbourne station, which had been a major interchange point for regional passengers using northern suburban and City Loop trains, as well as the recently-introduced Route 401 bus from North Melbourne to the hospital and university precincts. No reason was given for that decision, and after the RRL opened, passengers wanting to get to North Melbourne had to alight at Footscray or Southern Cross stations and catch another train.

Noise and pollution

Controversy emerged with the release of reports from the Victorian Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which criticized the methodology and results contained in assessments submitted by the RRL team to former state planning minister, Justin Madden, as part of the project planning referral. The EPA reports state, "in Footscray, for the most exposed residents, a vast majority of the population will experience chronic noise-induced sleep disturbance, with very significant proportions highly disturbed... For the most exposed residents in other areas, almost half the community will experience chronic noise-induced sleep disturbance." The reports also raised concerns about the Footscray Park Railway Reserve where, the EPA predicted, the public would be exposed to dangerous levels of nitrogen dioxide from increased diesel train traffic. The EPA noted that planned risk assessments had not been done by the Department of Transport.[50] Madden had viewed the EPA reports in September 2010, but ruled that an Environment Effects Statement (EES) was not required for Section-1 of the RRL project.[51]


Regional Rail Link
0 km
Southern Cross (SSS)
Zone 1
Footscray (FSY)
Zone 1
Sunshine (SUN)
Zone 1 & 2
Standard Gauge to Albury
Sunbury/Bendigo/Swan Hill/Echuca lines
Zone 2
Deer Park (DEK)
Zone 2
Ballarat/Ararat/Melton lines
Tarneit (TNT)
Zone 2
Wyndham Vale (WVL)
Zone 2
Geelong line


Despite the immediate advantage to commuters in the Wyndham Vale and Tarneit areas, there has been some disappointment regarding the irregular spacing of services at these stations. For example, on Monday to Friday morning services, there is a 26-minute gap between the 8:42 AM and the 9:08 AM city-bound trains at Tarneit Station.[52]

Ballarat line passengers have been particularly upset about their services since the full opening of the RRL. Due to a rolling stock shortage, some Ballarat trains had fewer carriages than before, and timekeeping of services worsened, despite the promise of greater reliability after the RRL opened.[53]

Following the opening of the Regional Rail Link, V/Line trains on the Ballarat line failed to meet punctuality targets for 14 consecutive months.[54]

Despite Allen Garner, former CEO and COO of the Regional Rail Link Authority, saying there were "no new level crossings" along the whole Regional Rail Link route, three were left in place along the former Serviceton line in Deer Park, which Geelong line trains now travel on. The extra services introduced as a result of RRL meant the crossing gates were down for longer, which heavily increased traffic in the area and drew criticism from residents and lobby groups. However, when the Andrews government revised their 2014 election commitment of removing 50 of the most dangerous and congested level crossings to include a further 25 level crossings at the 2018 state election, all 3 of them got included and will be removed. [55]

In January 2016, V/Line suddenly withdrew half of its V/locity fleet due to wheel wear issues. The lack of rolling stock meant passengers were forced to use buses and the government ended up having to give passengers a whole month of free travel. An independent report done into the wheel wear issues found the major cause of the problem was tight curves on the RRL route, particularly on the North Melbourne flyover (NMFO), which was upgraded as part of RRL as a means of allowing V/line trains to travel through North Melbourne on a separate route to Metro trains [56]

In May 2018, the Victorian Auditor-General completed an audit on the Regional Rail Link, titled "Assessing Benefits from the Regional Rail Link Project" [57]

While acknowledging that the project has had significant benefits, some of them unexpected, the Auditor-General slammed the State Government's of the time, the former Victorian Department of Transport and the Regional Rail Link Authority for its mismanagement of the project, particularly in the planning stages. [58]

He noted that the lack of any formal business case for the project made it extremely difficult to determine just what the benefits of the project were meant to be, and whether or not the RRL had lived up to the expectations set for it when the project was funded in 2009. He also said that planners had not adequately predicted how many people would use the RRL after its opening, and that the lines designed maximum capacity of 18 trains per-hour would make it difficult to add the number of services which will be required in the future. [59]

See also


  1. ^ Peter Begg (26 April 2011). "Regional rail link to go ahead". Geelong Advertiser. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  2. ^ Australia's largest public transport project leaps ahead Premier of Victoria 21 December 2011
  3. ^ "Network Development Plan – Metropolitan Rail" (PDF). Public Transport Victoria. December 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  4. ^ Jason Dowling & Natalie Puchalski (6 June 2009). "Regional rail travel booming, despite delays". The Age. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  5. ^ Mex Cooper (11 May 2009). "Geelong, V/Line Connex rail delays after fuel spill". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  6. ^ Mex Cooper (14 January 2009). "Melbourne train commuters warned of more delays". The Age. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  7. ^ Royce Millar & Clay Lucas (29 March 2008). "West may get new rail line". The Age. Melbourne: Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  8. ^ Rod Eddington (March 2008). "Fact sheet - Recommendations". East West Links Needs Assessment final report. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  9. ^ Clay Lucas (3 November 2008). "Planned $1.5bn rail link will free up bottlenecks". The Age. Melbourne: Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  10. ^ Regional Rail Link to Streamline Train Services Premier of Victoria 8 December 2008
  11. ^ Regional Rail Work to Start this Year after $4 Billion Project Secures Federal Funding Premier of Victoria 14 May 2009
  12. ^ Mex Cooper (18 May 2009). "Tough decisions necessary: PM". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  13. ^ Clay Lucas (7 May 2010). "Rail plan with at least one obstacle: Footscray". The Age. Melbourne: Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  14. ^ Clay Lucas (16 June 2009). "New train line and ring road routes to be unveiled". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
  15. ^ Proposed Route of Regional Rail Link Revealed Premier of Victoria 17 June 2009
  16. ^ "Houses to go for new regional rail link". The Age. Melbourne: 12 July 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  17. ^ "Footscray residents slam plans to acquire homes for transport upgrade". Herald Sun. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  18. ^ Robyn Grace (13 July 2010). "Rail demolition: Footscray residents fume over notification blunder". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  19. ^ Clay Lucas (13 July 2010). "Residents not told their homes will go". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  20. ^ Laura Wakely (14 February 2012). "No Opportunity". Star Community. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  21. ^ Gough, Deborah (13 February 2011). "Fears review of rail link scandal may be tainted". The Age. Melbourne.
  22. ^ "Brumby rapt at $3bn boost for rail link". The Age. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  23. ^ Jason Murphy (16 November 2011). "Vic project railroaded". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  24. ^ Construction Starts on the $4.3 Billion Regional Rail Link Premier of Victoria 27 August 2009
  25. ^ Rail Systems Regional Rail Link
  26. ^ Southern Cross Regional Rail Link
  27. ^ New contract moves Regional Rail Link into high gear Premier of Victoria 12 May 2012
  28. ^ City - Maribyrnong River Regional Rail Link
  29. ^ Footscray - Deer Park Regional Rail Link
  30. ^ Deer Park - West Werribee Junction Regional Rail Link
  31. ^ Full steam ahead on the Regional Rail Link Premier of Victoria 8 June 2012
  32. ^ West Werribee Junction Regional Rail Link
  33. ^ a b c "Commuters face snarls as $5.3bn rail project digs in". The Age. Melbourne. 4 July 2011.
  34. ^ Regional Rail Link works to kick off in July Premier of Victoria 17 May 2011
  35. ^ Platforms 15 and 16 Regional Rail Link
  36. ^ "Ballarat services now stopping at new, dedicated platforms at Sunshine station" Railway Digest June 2014 page 21
  37. ^ "First RRL test train was an N class light engine for signal sighting trials". Wongm's Rail Gallery. Melbourne. 6 October 2014.
  38. ^ "Andrews government delays Regional Rail Link opening by two months". The Age. Melbourne. 20 February 2015.
  39. ^ Geelong and Warrnambool trains to run via Regional Rail Link from 21 June 2015 V/Line
  40. ^ Lucas, Clay (22 May 2010). "Cost won't put a stop to freeway: Brumby". Melbourne: The Age.
  41. ^ "Rail link delay as bill nears $5bn". The Age. Melbourne. 5 April 2011.
  42. ^ "Relief from commuter crush years away despite billions in budget". The Age. Melbourne. 5 May 2015.
  43. ^
  44. ^ Lucas, Clay (21 March 2009). "Melbourne's Big Squeeze". The Age. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  45. ^ "Bombardier Awarded Contract for a Further 32 DMU Cars for V/Line Passenger in Australia". Bombardier. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  46. ^ "Coalition Orders 40 New Carriages for V/Line". Department of Transport. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  47. ^ a b "Express call for Tarneit West". Star Weekly. 1 May 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  48. ^ Lucas, Clay (15 June 2010). "$4.3b link won't cut travel times". The Age. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  49. ^ "Users ask the government how much slower the new rail link to Geelong will be". Public Transport Users Association. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  50. ^ Deborah Gough & Melissa Fyfe (6 February 2011). "Residents face lost sleep over rail project". The Age. The Sunday Age. Melbourne.
  51. ^ Minister for Planning (7 October 2010). "Reasons for Decision Under Environmental Effects Act 1978 : Regional Rail Link 1 – Moonee Ponds Creek to Deer Park". Department of Planning and Community Development. DPCD.
  52. ^ "V/Line Geelong Line" (PDF). Public Transport Victoria. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  53. ^ Schetzer, Alana (8 August 2015). "Ballarat train commuters suffer after Regional Rail Link opens". The Age. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^

External links