Wamberal Lagoon, an intermittently closed intermediate saline coastal lagoon[1], is located on the Central Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. Wamberal Lagoon is located between the beachside settlements of Forresters Beach and Wamberal, and adjacent to the east coast, about 87 kilometres (54 mi) north of Sydney.

Features and location

Fed by stormwater runoff that flows into Forresters Creek, the lagoon has a surface area of approximately 50 hectares (120 acres) and a catchment area of 5.8 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi).[2] When full, the Wamberal Lagoon covers an area of around 50 hectares (120 acres)[3]. Its outflow is to the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean that is generally closed, and water levels inside the lagoon are not usually influenced by ocean tides.[4]

The lagoon and the surrounding land comprising 139 hectares (340 acres) form part of the Wamberal Lagoon Nature Reserve, a nature reserve created in 1981, that is under management of the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.[5]

Terrigal Lagoon and Avoca Lake are located to the south and are a short distance away.

Wamberal Lagoon Conservation Society

WLCSlogo.jpg

Formed in 1983 and still active, the Wamberal Lagoon Conservation Society (WLCS) was set up to promote conservation of the lagoon and its surrounds in the face of increasing urban development.





The initial charter of the WLCS cited the terms of Section 49(3) of the National Parks and Wildlife Act: Lands within a nature reserve shall be deemed to be dedicated for the purposes of:

  • (a) The care, propagation, preservation and conservation of wildlife;
  • (b) The care, preservation and conservation of natural environments and natural phenomena.
  • (c) The study of wildlife, natural environments and natural phenomena; and
  • (d) The promotion of the appreciation and enjoyment of wildlife, natural environments and natural phenomena.

To this end the Society engages in education, co-operation with other bodies having a similar interest, and representations to authorities whose responsibilities affect the nature reserve. Members of the WLCS have been active members in bushcare activities over many years, involving removal of rubbish and invasive plants from environmentally sensitive areas, and replanting of native vegetation.

In 2018 and 2019 the WLCS initiated a habitat-restoration project aimed at improving water quality in inflows to the lagoon, with the ultimate aim of reintroducing an endangered amphibian species (the Green and Golden Bellfrog, Litoria aurea) that once was common in this area but has been extirpated (as it has over most of its former range [6][7]).

The Green and Golden Bellfrog, Litoria aurea, was once abundant on the Central Coast of NSW but is now known from only two small populations, at Avoca Lagoon and Davistown. The species is classed as Endangered under both Federal and State wildlife regulations. Photograph by Matt Greenlees.














The WLCS is working with management authorities (notably, the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Central Coast Council) to identify practicable methods to reduce pollutant input (e.g., via Gross Pollutant Traps on waterways flowing into the lagoon) and to replace invasive weeds with native vegetation to enhance biodiversity.

As part of the habitat-restoration initiative, WLCS assembled a list of vertebrate species that have been recorded to occur within one kilometre of the lagoon, based on unpublished records by WLCS members as well as consultancy reports[8][9][10]. That list confirms the highly biodiverse nature of the site, and hence the importance of its conservation. Species lists below.


AMPHIBIANS

Family Species Common name
HYLIDAE Litoria dentata Bleating Tree Frog
HYLIDAE Litoria fallax Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
HYLIDAE Litoria peronii Peron's Tree Frog
MYOBATRACHIDAE Adelotus brevis Tusked Frog
MYOBATRACHIDAE Crinia signifera Common Froglet
MYOBATRACHIDAE Limnodynastes peronii Striped Marsh Frog


BIRDS

Family Species Common name
ACANTHIZIDAE Acanthiza (Acanthiza) pusilla Brown Thornbill
ACANTHIZIDAE Acanthiza (Subacanthiza) lineata Striated Thornbill
ACANTHIZIDAE Acanthiza (Subacanthiza) nana Yellow Thornbill
ACANTHIZIDAE Gerygone mouki Brown Gerygone
ACANTHIZIDAE Sericornis (Sericornis) frontalis White-Browed Scrubwren
ACCIPITRIDAE Accipiter (Leucospiza) novaehollandiae Grey Goshawk
ACCIPITRIDAE Aviceda (Aviceda) subcristata Pacific Baza
ACCIPITRIDAE Haliaeetus leucogaster White-bellied Sea Eagle
ACCIPITRIDAE Haliastur sphenurus Whistling Kite
ACCIPITRIDAE Milvus migrans Black Kite
ACCIPITRIDAE Pandion haliaetus Osprey
ACROCEPHALIDAE Acrocephalus (Acrocephalus) australis Australian Reed Warbler
ALCEDINIDAE Dacelo (Dacelo) novaeguineae Kookaburra
ALCEDINIDAE Todiramphus (Todiramphus) sanctus Sacred Kingfisher
ANATIDAE Anas (Anas) platyrhynchos Mallard Duck
ANATIDAE Anas (Anas) superciliosa Pacific Black Duck
ANATIDAE Anas (Nettion) castanea Chestnut Teal
ANATIDAE Anas (Nettion) gracilis Grey Teal
ANATIDAE Aythya (Nyroca) australis Hardhead
ANATIDAE Biziura lobata Musk Duck
ANATIDAE Chenonetta jubata Australian Wood Duck
ANATIDAE Cygnus (Chenopis) atratus Black Swan
ANHINGIDAE Anhinga novaehollandiae Australasian Darter
APODIDAE Hirundapus caudacutus Spine-Tailed Swift
ARDEIDAE Ardea (Casmerodius) modesta Eastern Great Egret
ARDEIDAE Ardea (Casmerodius) modesta Eastern Great Egret
ARDEIDAE Ardea (Mesophoyx) intermedia Intermediate Egret
ARDEIDAE Ardea alba Great Egret
ARDEIDAE Butorides striatus Striated Heron
ARDEIDAE Egretta garzetta Little Egret
ARDEIDAE Egretta novaehollandiae White-Faced Heron
ARDEIDAE Egretta sacra Eastern Reef Egret
ARDEIDAE Ixobrychus flavicollis Black Bittern
ARDEIDAE Nycticorax caledonicus Nankeen Night-Heron
ARTAMIDAE Artamus (Artamus) leucorynchus White-Breasted Woodswallow
ARTAMIDAE Cracticus nigrogularis Pied Butcherbird
ARTAMIDAE Cracticus tibicen Australian Magpie
ARTAMIDAE Cracticus torquatus Grey Butcherbird
ARTAMIDAE Strepera (Strepera) graculina Pied Currawong
CACATUIDAE Cacatua (Cacatua) galerita Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo
CACATUIDAE Cacatua (Licmetis) sanguinea Little Corella
CACATUIDAE Cacatua (Licmetis) tenuirostris Long-Billed Corella
CACATUIDAE Callocephalon fimbriatum Gang-Gang Cockatoo
CACATUIDAE Calyptorhynchus (Zanda) funereus Yellow-Tailed Black-Cockatoo
CACATUIDAE Eolophus roseicapillus Galah
CAMPEPHAGIDAE Coracina (Coracina) novaehollandiae Black-Faced Cuckoo-Shrike
CENTROPODIDAE Centropus (Polophilus) phasianinus Pheasant Coucal
CHARADRIIDAE Pluvialis fulva Pacific Golden Plover
CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus miles Masked Lapwing
CICONIIDAE Ephippiorhynchus (Ephippiorhynchus) asiaticus Black-Necked Stork
COLUMBIDAE Columba (Columba) livia Rock Pigeon
COLUMBIDAE Columba (Janthoenas) leucomela White-Headed Pigeon
COLUMBIDAE Geopelia humeralis Bar-Shouldered Dove
COLUMBIDAE Ocyphaps lophotes Crested Pigeon
COLUMBIDAE Phaps (Phaps) chalcoptera Common Bronzewing
COLUMBIDAE Streptopelia (Spilopelia) chinensis Spotted Dove
CORACIIDAE Eurystomus orientalis Dollarbird
CORCORACIDAE Corcorax melanorhamphos White-Winged Chough
CORVIDAE Corvus coronoides Australian Raven
CUCULIDAE Cacomantis (Vidgenia) flabelliformis Fan-Tailed Cuckoo
CUCULIDAE Eudynamys orientalis Pacific Koel
CUCULIDAE Scythrops novaehollandiae Channel-Billed Cuckoo
DICRURIDAE Dicrurus bracteatus Spangled Drongo
ESTRILDIDAE Neochmia (Aegintha) temporalis Red-Browed Finch
FALCONIDAE Falco (Tinnunculus) cenchroides Nankeen Kestrel
HIRUNDINIDAE Hirundo neoxena Welcome Swallow
LARIDAE Chlidonias (Pelodes) hybrida Whiskered Tern
LARIDAE Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae Silver Gull
LARIDAE Sterna fuscata Sooty Tern
LARIDAE Sterna hirundo Common Tern
LARIDAE Sterna striata White-fronted Tern
LARIDAE Thalasseus bergii Crested Tern
MALURIDAE Malurus (Leggeornis) lamberti Variegated Fairy-Wren
MALURIDAE Malurus (Malurus) cyaneus Superb Fairy-Wren
MEGAPODIIDAE Alectura lathami Australian Brush-Turkey
MELIPHAGIDAE Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris Eastern Spinebill
MELIPHAGIDAE Anthochaera (Anellobia) chrysoptera Little Wattlebird
MELIPHAGIDAE Anthochaera carunculata Red Wattlebird
MELIPHAGIDAE Caligavis chrysops Yellow-Faced Honeyeater
MELIPHAGIDAE Manorina (Manorina) melanophrys Bell Miner
MELIPHAGIDAE Manorina (Myzantha) melanocephala Noisy Miner
MELIPHAGIDAE Meliphaga (Meliphaga) lewinii Lewin's Honeyeater
MELIPHAGIDAE Melithreptus (Melithreptus) lunatus White-Naped Honeyeater
MELIPHAGIDAE Phylidonyris (Meliornis) niger White-Cheeked Honeyeater
MELIPHAGIDAE Phylidonyris (Meliornis) novaehollandiae New Holland Honeyeater
MONARCHIDAE Grallina cyanoleuca Magpie-Lark
NECTARINIIDAE Dicaeum (Dicaeum) hirundinaceum Mistletoebird
OCEANITIDAE Pelagodroma marina White-Faced Storm-Petrel
ORIOLIDAE Oriolus (Mimeta) sagittatus Olive-Backed Oriole
ORIOLIDAE Sphecotheres vieilloti Australasian Figbird
PACHYCEPHALIDAE Colluricincla (Colluricincla) harmonica Grey Shrike-Thrush
PACHYCEPHALIDAE Pachycephala (Pachycephala) pectoralis Golden Whistler
PARDALOTIDAE Pardalotus (Pardalotus) punctatus Spotted Pardalote
PELECANIDAE Pelecanus conspicillatus Australian pelican
PETROICIDAE Eopsaltria (Eopsaltria) australis Eastern Yellow Robin
PHAETHONTIDAE Phaethon rubricauda Red-Tailed Tropicbird
PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax sulcirostris Little Black Cormorant
PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocorax varius Pied Cormorant
PHALACROCORACIDAE Phalacrocrorax carbo Great Cormorant
PODARGIDAE Podargus strigoides Tawny Frogmouth
PODICIPEDIDAE Tachybaptus novaehollandiae Australasian Grebe
PROCELLARIIDAE Ardenna grisea Sooty Shearwater
PROCELLARIIDAE Ardenna pacificus Wedge-tailed Shearwater
PROCELLARIIDAE Ardenna tenuirostris Short-tailed Shearwater
PROCELLARIIDAE Pachyptila turtur Fairy Prion
PROCELLARIIDAE Pterodroma (Pterodroma) macroptera Great-Winged Petrel
PROCELLARIIDAE Puffinus (Puffinus) assimilis Little Shearwater
PSITTACIDAE Alisterus scapularis Australian King-Parrot
PSITTACIDAE Glossopsitta concinna Musk Lorikeet
PSITTACIDAE Parvipsitta pusilla Little Lorikeet
PSITTACIDAE Platycercus (Violania) eximius Eastern Rosella
PSITTACIDAE Platycercus elegans Crimson Rosella
PSITTACIDAE Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus Scaly-Breasted Lorikeet
PSITTACIDAE Trichoglossus haematodus Rainbow Lorikeet
PSOPHODIDAE Psophodes (Psophodes) olivaceus Eastern Whipbird
PTILONORHYNCHIDAE Ptilonorhynchus violaceus Satin Bowerbird
PYCNONOTIDAE Pycnonotus (Pycnonotus) jocosus Red-Whiskered Bulbul
RALLIDAE Fulica atra Eurasian Coot
RALLIDAE Gallinula (Gallinula) tenebrosa Dusky Moorhen
RALLIDAE Gallirallus philippensis Banded Rail
RALLIDAE Porphyrio (Porphyrio) porphyrio Purple Swamphen
RHIPIDURIDAE Rhipidura (Howeavis) rufifrons Rufous Fantail
RHIPIDURIDAE Rhipidura (Rhipidura) albiscapa Grey Fantail
RHIPIDURIDAE Rhipidura (Sauloprocta) leucophrys Willie Wagtail
SCOLOPACIDAE Calidris ruficollis Red-necked Stint
SCOLOPACIDAE Callidris ferruginea Curew Sandpiper
SCOLOPACIDAE Gallinago hardwickii Latham's Snipe
SCOLOPACIDAE Limosa lapponica Bar-Tailed Godwit
SPHENISCIDAE Eudyptula minor Little Penguin
STERCORARIIDAE Stercorarius parasiticus Arctic Jaeger
STRIGIDAE Ninox (Ninox) novaeseelandiae Southern Boobook
STRIGIDAE Ninox (Rhabdoglaux) strenua Powerful Owl
STURNIDAE Acridotheres tristis Common Myna
STURNIDAE Sturnus (Sturnus) vulgaris Common Starling
SULIDAE Morus serrator Australasian Gannet
THRESKIORNITHIDAE Oplatalea regia Royal Spoonbill
THRESKIORNITHIDAE Threskiornis molucca Australian White Ibis
TIMALIIDAE Zosterops lateralis Silvereye
TYTONIDAE Tyto (Tyto) javanica Eastern Barn Owl


FISH

Family Species Common name
AMBASSIDAE Ambassus jacksoniensis Port Jackson Glassfish
ANGUILLIDAE Anguilla australis Short-finned Eel
ANGUILLIDAE Anguilla reinhardtii Long-finned Eel
ANTENNARIIDAE Antennarius striatus Striated Frogfish
ARRIPIDAE Arripis trutta Eastern Australian Salmon
ATHERINIDAE Atherinosoma microstoma Smallmouth Hardyhead
ATHERINIDAE Leptatherina presbyteroides Silver Side
CALLIONYMIDAE Repomucenus calcaratus Spotted Stinkfish
CARANGIDAE Pseudocaranx dentex White Trevally
CLUPEIDAE Herklotsichthys castelnaui Southern Herring
ELEOTRIDAE Philypnodon grandiceps Flathead Gudgeon
GERREIDAE Gerres subfasciatus Silver Biddy
GERREIDAE Girella tricuspida Luderick
GOBIIDAE Acentrogobius bifrenatus Bridled Goby
GOBIIDAE Afuragobius tamarensis Tamar River Goby
GOBIIDAE Callogobius sp. Goby
GOBIIDAE Favonigobius exquisitis Exquisite Sand-goby
GOBIIDAE Favonigobius lateralis Goby
GOBIIDAE Gobiopterus semivestita Goby
GOBIIDAE Parkraemeria ornata Goby
GOBIIDAE Pseudogobius olorum Pseudogobius olorum
GONORHYNCHIDAE Gonorhynchus greyi Beaked Salmon
HEMIRHAMPHIDAE Hyporhamphus regularis Eastern River Garfish
ISONIDAE Iso rhothophilus Surf Sardine
LABRIDAE Achoerodus viridis Eastern Blue Groper
LABRIDAE Coris sandeyeri Eastern King Wrasse
MUGILIDAE Liza argentea Flat-tail Mullet
MUGILIDAE Mugil cephalus Sea Mullet
MUGILIDAE Myxis elongatus Sand Grey Mullet
PARALICHTHYIDAE Pseudorhombus jenynsii Small-toothed Flounder
PERCICHTHYIDAE Macquaria colonorum Estuary Perch
PLATYCEPHALIDAE Platycephalus fuscus Dusky Flathead
POECILIIDAE Gambusia holbrooki Eastern Gambusia
POMATOMIDAE Pomatomus saltatrix Tailor
PSEUDOMUGILIDAE Pseudomugil signifer Pacific Blue Eye
RHOMBOSOLEIDAE Ammotretis rostratus Long-nosed Flounder
SILLAGINIDAE Sillago ciliata Sand Whiting
SPARIDAE Acanthopagrus australis Yellowfin Bream
SPARIDAE Rhabdosargus sarba Tarwhine
SYGNATHIDAE Urocampus carinirostris Hairy Pipefish
TERAPONTIDAE Terapon jarbua Crescent Perch
TETRAODONTIDAE Tetractenos glaber Smooth toadfish
TETRAODONTIDAE Tetractenos hamiltoni Common Toadfish
TETRAROGIDAE Centropogon australis Fortescue
TRIGLIDAE Chelidonichthys kumu Red Gurnard


MAMMALS

Family Species Common name
BALAENIDAE Eubalaena australis Southern Right Whale
CANIDAE Vulpes vulpes Fox
DASYURIDAE Antechinus stuartii Brown Antechinus
FELIDAE Felis catus Cat
LEPORIDAE Oryctolagus cuniculus Rabbit
MACROPODIDAE Wallabia bicolor Swamp Wallaby
MINIOPTERIDAE Miniopterus australis Little Bentwing-Bat
MINIOPTERIDAE Miniopterus schreibersii Bent-Wing Bat
MOLOSSIDAE Austronomus australis White-Striped Freetail-Bat
MOLOSSIDAE Mormopterus (Ozimops) ridei Ride's Free-Tailed Bat
MURIDAE Rattus fuscipes Bush Rat
MURIDAE Rattus lutreolus Swamp Rat
MURIDAE Rattus rattus Ship Rat
OTARIIDAE Arctocephalus tropicalis Subantarctic Fur-seal
PERAMELIDAE Isoodon macrourus Northern Brown Bandicoot
PHALANGERIDAE Trichosurus vulpecula Australian Brushtail Possum
PHOCIDAE Hydrurga leptonyx Leopard Seal
PSEUDOCHEIRIDAE Pseudocheirus peregrinus Common Ringtail Possum
PTEROPODIDAE Pteropus poliocephalus Grey-Headed Flying-Fox
TACHYGLOSSIDAE Tachyglossus aculeatus Short-Beaked Echidna
VESPERTILIONIDAE Chalinolobus gouldii Gould's Wattled Bat
VESPERTILIONIDAE Chalinolobus morio Chocolate Wattled Bat
VESPERTILIONIDAE Nyctophilus gouldi Gould's Long-Eared Bat
VESPERTILIONIDAE Vespadelus darlingtoni Large Forest Bat
VESPERTILIONIDAE Vespadelus pumilus Eastern Forest Bat
VESPERTILIONIDAE Vespadelus vulturnus Little Forest Bat
VOMBATIDAE Vombatus ursinus Bare-Nosed Wombat


REPTILES

Family Species Common name
AGAMIDAE Amphibolurus muricatus Jacky Lizard
AGAMIDAE Intellagama lesueurii Water Dragon
AGAMIDAE Rankinia diemensis Mountain Dragon
COLUBRIDAE Dendrelaphis punctulatus Green Tree Snake
ELAPIDAE Cacophis krefftii Southern Dwarf Crowned Snake
ELAPIDAE Cacophis squamulosus Golden Crowned Snake
ELAPIDAE Demansia psammophis Yellow-Faced Whip Snake
ELAPIDAE Hemiaspis signata Hemiaspis signata
ELAPIDAE Pseudechis porphyriacus Red-Bellied Black Snake
GEKKONIDAE Phyllurus platurus Leaf-tailed Gecko
PYGOPODIDAE Pygopus lepidopodus Common Scaly-Foot
PYTHONIDAE Morelia spilota Diamond Python
SCINCIDAE Bellatorias major Land Mullet
SCINCIDAE Ctenotus robustus Robust Ctenotus
SCINCIDAE Eulamprus quoyii Eastern Water Skink
SCINCIDAE Lampropholis delicata Dark-Flecked Garden Sunskink
SCINCIDAE Lampropholis guichenoti Pale-Flecked Garden Sunskink
SCINCIDAE Saiphos equalis Three-toed Skink
SCINCIDAE Saproscincus mustelinum Weasel Skink
SCINCIDAE Tiliqua scincoides Eastern Blue-Tongue
TYPHLOPIDAE Ramphotyphlops nigrescens Common Blind Snake

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Roy, P. S; Williams, R. J; Jones, A. R; Yassini, I; et al. (2001). "Structure and Function of South-east Australian Estuaries". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 53: 351–384. doi:10.1006/ecss.2001.0796.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Estuaries of NSW: Wamberal Lagoon". Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Map of Wamberal Lagoon, NSW". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  4. ^ "Wamberal Lagoon" (PDF). Environmental fact sheets: W11. Gosford City Council. January 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  5. ^ "Wamberal Lagoon Nature Reserve". NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service: Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  6. ^ White, A.W. and Pyke, G.H. 1996. Distribution and conservation status of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea. Australian Zoologist 30, 177-189.
  7. ^ Mahony, M.J., Hamer, A.J., Pickett, E.J., McKenzie, D.J., Stockwell, M.P., Garnham, J.I., Keely, C.C., Deboo, M.L., O'Meara, J., Pollard, C.J. and Clulow, S. 2013. Identifying conservation and research priorities in the face of uncertainty: a review of the threatened bell frog complex in eastern Australia. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 8, 519-538.
  8. ^ BMT WBM. 2013. Gosford Coastal Lagoons Coastal Zone Management Study.
  9. ^ BMT WBM. 2015. Coastal Zone Management Plan for Gosford Lagoons.
  10. ^ Cardno. 2010. Gosford Coastal Lagoons Processes Study, prepared for Gosford City Council, July 2010

External links