Lismore, New South Wales
Lismore is a city in northeastern New South Wales, Australia and the main population centre in the City of Lismore local government area; it is also a regional centre in the Northern Rivers region of the State. According to the 2016 Australian Census, the population in the Lismore urban centre was 27,569.
The city of Lismore lies in the Bundjalung people's nation area. However, the actual area of the Bundjalung people from Evans Head is currently under examination, as well as the actual origin of the name Bundjalung. It has been suggested that the Aboriginal people called the area Tuckurimbah meaning "glutton."
The European history of the city begins in c. 1843: a pastoral run covering an area of 93 square kilometres (36 sq mi) was taken up by Captain Dumaresq at this time covering the Lismore area and was stocked with sheep from the New England area. Ward Stephens took up the run in the same year, but the subtropical climate was unsuited for sheep grazing, so it was eventually abandoned. In January 1845, William and Jane Wilson took it over. The Wilsons were Scottish immigrants, who arrived in New South Wales in May 1833. Mrs. Wilson named the property after the small island of Lismore, one of the Hebrides in Loch Linnhe,Argyleshire.
In 1855, the surveyor Frederick Peppercorne was instructed by Sir Thomas Mitchell to determine a site for a township in the area. Peppercorne submitted his map of the proposed village reserve on 16 February 1856. The chosen site was William Wilson's homestead paddock and the area was proclaimed the "Town of Lismore" in the NSW Government Gazette on 1 May 1856. The township was soon settled and its Post Office was opened on 1 October 1859. Lismore was incorporated as a municipality on 5 March 1879, and was eventually proclaimed a city on 30 August 1946. From the mid-1950s until the early 1960s Lismore hosted an annual Floral Carnival in early September. The week-long programme of events culminated in a street parade of decorated floats, crowning of the Floral Queen and a fireworks display.
Lismore has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
- 544 Main Road: Colemans Bridge over Leycester Creek
- North Coast railway: Lismore railway station
- North Coast railway: Leycester Creek railway bridge
Lismore and surrounding towns were once part of the rainforest referred to as the "Big Scrub", of which less than one percent remains following settlement. A section of this rainforest is viewable in the grounds of the Southern Cross University and at Wilsons Nature Reserve on Wyrallah Road.
Lismore is located on the Bruxner Highway and it lies at the confluence of the Wilsons River (a tributary of the Richmond River) and Leycester Creek, The state capital city of Sydney is located 764 km (475 mi) to the south by highway. Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, is 200 kilometres (124 mi) to the north.
Lismore's central business district is located 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the eastern coast, and 46 kilometres (29 mi) southwest of Byron Bay. The coastal town of Ballina is 36 kilometres (22 mi) away. There are a number of rainforest patches in the area, remnants of the Big Scrub. These are preserved today, with a small pocket known as Boatharbour Reserve just east of town on the Bangalow road. The nearest large and publicly accessible national park is Nightcap National Park.
Lismore experiences a humid subtropical climate with mild to warm temperatures all year round and ample rainfall. Temperatures in summer range between 20 °C (68 °F) and 35 °C (95 °F). The subtropical climate combined with geographical features means the urban area is unusually humid when compared with surrounding areas, with humidity levels often reaching 100% in summer. Lismore has 109.6 clear days annually.
Although no major environmental hazards affect the area, Lismore is renowned for frequent floods. One of the worst of these occurred in 1974, when waters rose to a height of 12.1 metres (40 ft). In 1954, Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh almost became flood-bound by one such inundation when they were staying at the Gollan Hotel.
In 1999 a government-funded scheme to protect the CBD and South Lismore from a 1-in-10-year flood event was approved. This proposal would mean that most of the smaller floods would not enter the central area of Lismore and substantially improve the time available for the evacuation of residents and the business community in larger floods. Nonetheless, around 3000 residents of Lismore were evacuated after floods affected much of the area on 30 June 2005, many being temporarily housed on the campus of Southern Cross University. However, the new levee that had been completed two weeks prior limited damage and stopped the water reaching the Central Business District.
In the aftermath of Cyclone Debbie in March 2017, Lismore was again badly affected by flooding of up to 3.5 metres (11 ft) through all CBD businesses. Wilsons River reached 11.6 metres (38 ft) and the levee was overtopped for the first time since its completion.
Lismore is often hit by severe storms in spring and summer. For example, there was a severe hailstorm on 9 October 2007. A tornado is an extreme rarity, but later that same month one struck nearby Dunoon. It was captured on video as it hit an electrical transformer station there.
Climate data for Lismore Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 43.4
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
Average low °C (°F) 18.8
Record low °C (°F) 11.6
Average rainfall mm (inches) 155.4
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm) 12.9 13.9 15.6 12.5 11.6 9.5 8.3 7.5 7.4 9.0 10.0 11.4 129.6 Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 58 61 60 58 59 56 51 46 45 50 51 55 54 Source #1: Bureau of Meteorology Source #2: For February record high: Weatherzone
According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 27,569 people in Lismore.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 6.2% of the population.
- 83.3% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 2.0%, New Zealand 1.0%, Philippines 0.5%, Italy 0.4% and Germany 0.4%.
- 87.5% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian at 0.7%.
- The most common responses for religion were No Religion 31.0%, Catholic 22.2% and Anglican 14.8%.
The Northern Star is a tabloid newspaper based in Lismore. It covers the region from Casino to Ballina and up to Murwillimbah and Byron Bay. The is a free weekly community newspaper for Lismore, Alstonville, Wollongbar, Ballina, Casino, Nimbin and Evans Head.
The commercial radio stations of Lismore are Triple Z (Hit Music) and 2LM 900 AM (also broadcast on 104.3FM). Both are run by Broadcast Operations Group. The community radio station is River FM 92.9 which offers an independent alternative media voice playing a diverse range of music. Other radio stations are JJJ 96.1 FM, Radio National 96.9 FM, Classic FM 95.3 and ABC North Coast 94.5 FM.
All major television Network channels are available in Lismore and in the general Northern Rivers region. The networks and the channels they currently broadcast are listed as follows:
- Prime7 (SD), 7Two (SD), 7mate (HD) – Seven Network affiliated channels. UHF35 (578.5 MHz)
- NBN Television (SD), Go! (SD), GEM HD – Nine Network affiliated channels. UHF37 (592.5 MHz)
- WIN Television (SD), Eleven (SD), One HD – Network Ten affiliated channels. UHF32 (557.5 MHz)
- ABC Television, ABC1, ABC2, ABC3 (all SD), ABC News 24 (HD) – part of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation National Network. UHF29 (536.5 MHz)
- SBS Television, SBS One (SD) and (HD), SBS Two (SD) – Special Broadcasting Service National Network. UHF40 (613.5 MHz)
- Digital radio channels are also broadcast on the ABC Television and SBS Television networks.
- Southern Cross University is located in Lismore, offering undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in disciplines including business and law, tourism, humanities and social sciences, creative and performing arts, education, environment, marine and forest sciences, engineering, health and human sciences, law and Indigenous studies. The University was established in 1994 and has campuses at Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, and Gold Coast, Queensland. The University has students from more than 80 countries around the world.
Lismore and the surrounding area is home to a number of public and private schools, including:
- Our Lady Help of Christians Catholic Primary School
- St Carthage's Catholic Primary School
- Blue Hills College
- Kadina High School
- Lismore High School
- Lismore South Public School
- Richmond River High School
- St John's College, Woodlawn
- Summerland Christian College
- Trinity Catholic College, Lismore
- Vistara Primary
Sport and recreation
Lismore formed a sister city relationship with the Japanese city of Yamatotakada in Nara Prefecture in 1963. The first such relationship established between Australia and Japan, it was initiated by Lismore-born Marist priest and writer Paul Glynn. Lismore is also a sister city of Eau Claire, Wisconsin and Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.
Notable people from or who have lived in Lismore include:
- Peter Allen – musician and singer
- Peter Arnison AC, CVO – Major General, Land Commander Australia 1994–1996, Governor of Queensland 1997–2003
- Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder, once lived in Lismore
- Andrew Barr – the 7th Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, was born in Lismore in 1973
- Con Colleano – a tightrope walker, was born in Lismore in 1899
- Harold Warnock Cottee – a co-founder of Cottee's drinks
- Bob Ellis – a writer, journalist, filmmaker and political commentator, was born in Lismore in 1942
- Craig Foster – a Socceroo, was born in Lismore in 1969
- Adam Gilchrist – a cricketer, lived in Lismore from the age of 13
- Paul Glynn – a Marist missionary priest and writer, was born in Lismore in 1928
- Grinspoon – a pop/rock band, originated in Lismore
- Nicholas Hamilton – an actor mostly known for his role as Henry Bowers in It
- Martin Kennedy – a professional rugby league player
- Andrew King – a professional rugby league player
- Chris King – a professional rugby league player
- David Mead – a National Rugby League player
- Bruce Mitchell – an Oxford scholar of Old English, was born in Lismore in 1920
- Maia Mitchell – an actress best known for her role as Callie Adams Foster on The Fosters and Good Trouble
- Margaret Olley AC – an Australian artist, was born in Lismore
- Nigel Roy – a professional rugby league footballer, was born in Lismore in 1974
- – a Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales between 1989–1993
- Tony Smith – a rugby league coach
- James Strong AO – a former CEO of Qantas
- Emma Tom – a writer, journalist and media commentator
- Harry Wharton OBE, FAA (1923–1983) – a zoologist and entomologist, particularly for the CSIRO
In popular culture
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Lismore (Urban Centres and Localities)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Local Tribes", History of Lismore, Lismore City Council
- "The Romance of Australian Place names". The Australian Women's Weekly. National Library of Australia. 13 May 1964. p. 61. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "Early History of Lismore". The Northern Star. National Library of Australia. 16 May 1894. p. 6. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- Map R.6.1246, N.S.W. State Archives
- Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- Lismore Floral Carnival 3rd – 10th September 1955 Programme, pamphlet, 1955.
- Lismore 1960 September 3 – September 10 Floral Carnival Programme, pamphlet, 1960.
- "Colemans Bridge over Leycester Creek". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01463. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Lismore Railway Station group". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01180. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Lismore railway underbridges". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01044. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "MapMaker". travelmate.com.au. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2008.
- Lismore, history and profile, tropicalnsw.com.a
- "Flooding Information: A Short History of Flooding in Lismore" by Lismore City Council , 2017
- "Thousands evacuated as floods hit NSW". The New Zealand Herald. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- "NSW flooding: Lismore ordered to evacuate, Murwillumbah residents stuck on roofs". ABC News. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Hansen, Jane (2 April 2017). "Cyclone Debbie aftermath: Lismore floods tear heart out of city business zone". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Lismore (Centre Sreet)". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- Over 40 Temperature Records Broken over the Weekend by Joel Pippard, Weatherzone, 13 February 2017
- A Brief History of SCU
- SCU International Students
- Feain, Dominic "WikiLeaks founder's Lismore roots," Northern Star, 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Celebrating the Achievements of our Past Students", Education Directorate, ACT Government, archived from the original on 30 January 2017, retrieved 30 January 2017
- "Local heroes go back to school". The Northern Rivers Echo. 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- (1989) 63 Australian Law Journal 712.
- Priestly, Angela: Business Bosses, no. 9: James Strong Archived 3 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The Power Index, Private Media, 7 June 2012.
- "Wharton, Ronald Harry (1923–1983)". Encyclopaedia of Australian Science. Retrieved 2011-06-28.
- "Biographical memoirs – Ronald Harry Wharton". Australian Academy of Science. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-28.