Socialism in Australia

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Socialism in Australia dates back to the earliest pioneers of the area in the late 19th century.[1] Notions of socialism in Australia have taken many different forms including the utopian nationalism of Edward Bellamy, the Marxism of parties such as the Communist Party of Australia, and the democratic socialist reformist electoral project of the early Australian Labor Party.[2]

History

Pre-Federation

Pre-federation Australian socialism was highly influenced by philosophical ideologies arising from the United States of America and the United Kingdom. Social scientists who had visited Australia at the time noted the lack of influence from continental socialist ideologies such as Marxism, labelling it as having "socialism with no doctrine".[3] In particular, the works of the American author Edward Bellamy were highly influential, which advocated for the democratic nationalisation of all industry.[4] The prominent movement Australian Socialist League was by the 1890s "modelled on, of all things, Daniel De Leon's Socialist Labor party".[3] Due to the significant influence of American socialist writers, the political sociologist Robin Archer has described that pre-federation "Australian leftism was more American than American leftism itself".[3]

Socialist colonies

In the late 1890s, the colonies of and New Australia were founded in South America by groups of Australian socialists.

The settlement of New Australia was founded in 1893 by the supporters of the utopian socialist William Lane. Lane's socialism was inspired by Edward Bellamy as well as his unorthodox belief that race played a role in preventing a socialist society from forming.[2] Due to these beliefs, New Australia was built around the values of creating "a brotherhood of English-speaking Whites" which preserved the "colour-Line" which was seen as necessary in order to achieving communism.[5] After conflict over Lane's supposed incompetent management, 58 colonists left New Australia in 1894 to found the colony of Cosme several kilometres south and the original colony was soon after dissolved.[6]

Post-Federation

Socialism was a major ideological force behind the Builders Labourers Federation and green bans in the 1970s. The Victorian branch of the union was primarily led by members of the Maoist CPA (M-L) such as Norm Gallagher, while the New South Wales branch was led by members of the CPA such as Jack Mundey.[7] In 1974, Gallagher and several affiliated Maoist workers occupied the New South Wales branch office and expelled CPA affiliated unionists.[7] After union officials, including CPA members, agreed upon the Prices and Incomes Accord in 1983 which traded lower rates of industrial action for parliamentary reforms, it signalled "the end of the renegade, guerrilla actions of the BLF to stop work and take radical protest activities". The union was de-registered shortly after during the Labor Hawke government, and members were blacklisted from working on construction sites.[7]

Contemporary era

Following the collapse of the communism in Europe during the 1990s, belief in public ownership collapsed, resulting in the fall of the Communist Party of Australia and the shift of Labor Left towards non-socialist ideologies.[8] The Communist Party of Australia was dissolved and the assets of the Communist Party were thereafter directed into the SEARCH Foundation,[9] a not-for-profit company set up in 1990 "to preserve and draw on the resources of the Communist Party of Australia and its archives."[10] In 1996 the Socialist Party of Australia, a splinter party from the CPA, changed its name to the Communist Party of Australia claiming the party was the rightful successor to the original party formed in 1920.[11]

Political historian Geoff Robinson describes the contemporary left as a "movement of parties and electoral campaigning."[8] There are currently three federally registered socialist parties which run in elections: Socialist Alliance, Socialist Equality Party, and the Victorian Socialists.[12] Although Socialist Action and the Communist Party of Australia are not registered for federal elections, they have successfully contested local government elections in the City of Yarra and the City of Auburn.[13][14] There are several organisations and parties which do not run in elections, either for ideological reasons or due to practical reasons, including the Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist), Socialist Alternative, and Solidarity.

Socialist organisations in Australia

Active

Name Ideology
Communist Party of Australia (current) Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist) Communism
Maoism
Left Renewal Green politics
Anti-capitalism
Progressive Labour Party Democratic socialism
SEARCH Foundation Democratic socialism
Eco-socialism
Socialist Action Revolutionary socialism
Trotskyism
Socialist Alliance Socialism
Marxism
Socialist Alternative Trotskyism
Neo-Trotskyism
Socialist Equality Party Orthodox Trotskyism
Solidarity Marxism
Trotskyism
Victorian Socialists Democratic socialism
Anti-capitalism

Historical

Name Ideology
Communist Party of Australia
(historical)
Marxism–Leninism
Eurocommunism (1970s+)
Democratic Association of Victoria Utopian socialism
Democratic Socialist Electoral League Democratic socialism
Democratic Socialist Perspective Socialism
Marxism
Industrial Socialist Labor Party One Big Union
International Socialist Organisation Trotskyism
Revolutionary Socialist Party Marxism
Leninism
Socialist Democracy Revolutionary socialism
Trotskyism
Socialist Labor Party De Leonism
(Past 1905)
World Socialist Party of Australia Impossiblism
Socialism
Victorian Socialist Party Marxism
Entryism

Timeline

Parties and organisations

Active, socialist.
Defunct
Fall of USSR
Victorian SocialistsSocialist Alternative (Australia)Revolutionary Socialist Party (Australia)Socialist Alliance (Australia)Socialist Alternative (Australia)Socialist Action (Australia)Socialist Party (Australia)Socialist Party (Australia)Socialist Alliance (Australia)Socialist Democracy (Australia)Socialist Alliance (Australia)Democratic Socialist PerspectiveSocialist Workers PartySocialist Equality Party (Australia)Socialist Equality Party (Australia)Communist Party of Australia (current)Communist Party of Australia (current)Solidarity (Australia)International Socialist Organisation (Australia)Communist Party of Australia (Marxist–Leninist)World Socialist Party of AustraliaIndustrial Socialist Labor PartyIndustrial Workers of the World#AustraliaVictorian Socialist PartySocialist Labor Party (Australia)Socialist Labor Party (Australia)SEARCH FoundationCommunist Party of AustraliaDemocratic Association of Victoria

See also

References

  1. ^ Fry, E. (1982). A Hundred Years of Socialism in Australia. Australian Left Review, 1(80), 44–51.
  2. ^ a b Burgmann, Verity (1985). In Our Time: Socialism and the rise of Labor, 1885 -1905. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0868615293.
  3. ^ a b c Archer, Robin (2008). "Chapter 8 Socialism". Why is there no labor party in the United States?. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691149349.
  4. ^ Toth, Csaba (2012). "Resisting Bellamy: How Kautsky and Bebel Read Looking Backward". Utopian Studies. 23 (1).
  5. ^ Cosme Monthly, June 1895
  6. ^ Australian Encyclopaedia Volume 2, p 191, Angus and Robertson Limited, 1926
  7. ^ a b c Piccini, Jon; Smith, Evan; Worley, Matthew, eds. (2018). The far left in Australia since 1945 (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 9780429487347.
  8. ^ a b Robinson, Geoff (2019). Being Left-Wing in Australia: Identity, Culture and Politics after Socialism. Australian Scholarly Publishing. ISBN 978-1-925801-79-8.
  9. ^ "SEARCH Foundation". SEARCH Foundation. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  10. ^ "SEARCH Foundation (Australia)". Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  11. ^ "CPA – About Us – An Introduction". www.cpa.org.au. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Current register of political parties". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  13. ^ "Socialist elected to Yarra council". Green Left Weekly. 6 September 2016.
  14. ^ Boyle, Peter (6 September 2016). "Fourth socialist elected to a local council in Australia". Green Left Weekly. Retrieved 15 July 2019.