Far North Queensland, which is often known simply as FNQ, is the northernmost part of the Australian state of Queensland. Its largest city is Cairns and it is dominated geographically by Cape York Peninsula, which stretches north to the Torres Strait, and west to the Gulf Country. The waters of Torres Strait include the only international border in the area contiguous with the Australian mainland, between Australia and Papua New Guinea.
The region is home to three World Heritage Sites, the Great Barrier Reef, the Wet Tropics of Queensland and Riversleigh, Australia's largest fossil mammal site. Far North Queensland lays claim to over 70 national parks, including Mount Bartle Frere; with a peak of 1,622 metres (5,322 ft) it is the highest peak in both Northern Australia and Queensland.
Far North Queensland supports a significant agricultural sector, a number of significant mines and is home to Queensland's largest wind farm, the Windy Hill Wind Farm.
Various government departments and agencies have different definitions for the region. The Queensland Government department of Trade and Investment Queensland defines the region as an area comprising the following 25 local government areas; Aurukun, Burke, Cairns, Carpentaria, Cassowary Coast, Cook, Croydon, Doomadgee, Douglas, Etheridge, Hope Vale, Kowanyama, Lockhart River, Mapoon, Mareeba, Mornington, Napranum, Northern Peninsula Area, Pormpuraaw, Tablelands, Torres Strait Islands (not autonomous), Torres Strait Islands (autonomous), Weipa, Wujal Wujal, Yarrabah.
The main population and administrative centre of the region is the city of Cairns. Other key population centres include Cooktown, the Atherton Tableland, Weipa, Innisfail and the Torres Strait Islands. The region also consists of many Aboriginal and farming groups.
The northeastern point of Highway 1 passes through the region in the city of Cairns and connects the southern-running Bruce Highway to the western-running Savannah Way. Highway 1 circumnavigates the continent at a length of approximately 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) and is the second-longest national highway in the world after the Pan-American Highway. Despite being Highway 1, not all sections of the Savannah Way are designated as a federally funded National Highway and certain sections remain unsealed.
Significant industries include tourism, cattle grazing, agriculture and mining of both sand and bauxite. Agricultural products generate between $600 and $700 million a year. Sugar cane, tropical fruits including bananas, mangoes, papaya, lychees and coffee are grown in Far North Queensland.
The region is home to the world's biggest silica mine at Cape Flattery. The mine was established in 1967 and was severely damaged by Cyclone Ita in 2014. Rio Tinto Alcan operates a bauxite mine on the western coast of Cape York Peninsula near Weipa which contains one of the largest bauxite deposits in the world.
In recent years, Far North Queensland has become increasingly known for its artistic and creative offerings, with the Cairns Indigenous Art Fair, and Cairns Festival both held annually. Active arts organisation include the Tanks Arts Centre, Cairns Civic Theatre, and Cairns Art Gallery.
The region supports a large tourism industry and is considered a premier tourist destination in Australia. Nearly one third of international visitors to the state come to the region. Attractions include the Great Barrier Reef, Daintree Rainforest and other Queensland tropical rain forests within the Wet Tropics of Queensland heritage area, the Atherton Tableland, Hinchinbrook Island and other resort islands such as Dunk Island and Green Island. Major attractions around and in Cairns include The Reef Hotel Casino, Kuranda Scenic Railway, Barron Falls and the Skyrail Rainforest Cableway. Towns and localities attracting large numbers of tourists include Cape Tribulation, Port Douglas, Mission Beach and Cardwell.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates the region's population at 280,638 in 2014. The region contains 25.6% of the state's Indigenous population, or 28,909 people, making up 11.8% of the region's population.
Yalanji (also known as Kuku Yalanji, Kuku Yalaja, Kuku Yelandji, and Gugu Yalanji) is an Australian Aboriginal language of Far North Queensland. The traditional language region is Mossman River in the south to the Annan River in the north, bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the east and extending inland to west of Mount Mulgrave. This includes the local government boundaries of the Shire of Douglas, the Shire of Cook and the Aboriginal Shire of Wujal Wujal and the towns and localities of Cooktown, Mossman, Daintree, Cape Tribulation and Wujal Wujal. It includes the head of the Palmer River, the Bloomfield River, China Camp, Maytown, and Palmerville.
Far North Queensland is the location of the first amber fossils to be found in Australia. The four-million-year-old fossils were found on a beach in Cape York Peninsula but were probably washed ashore after drifting with the currents for about 200 km. In the 1860s, Richard Daintree discovered gold and copper deposits along several rivers which led early prospectors to the area.
The region suffered Queensland's worst maritime disaster on 4 March 1899 when the Mahina Cyclone destroyed all 100 ships moored in Princess Charlotte Bay. The entire North Queensland pearling fleet was in the bay at the time of the cyclone. Approximately 100 Aboriginals assisting survivors and 307 men from the pearling fleet were drowned. Its pressure was measured at 914 hPa with a recorded tidal surge of 13 m, the highest ever in Australia. The 1918 Mackay cyclone hit the Queensland coast in January of that year, killing 30 people.
In March 1997, Cyclone Justin resulted in the deaths of seven people. In early 2000, Cyclone Steve caused major flooding between Cairns and Mareeba. Cyclone Larry crossed the Queensland coast near Innisfail in March 2006. The storm resulted in an estimated $1.5 billion worth of damage and damaged 10,000 homes. 80% of Australia's banana crop was destroyed. Cyclone Monica was the most intense cyclone on record in terms of wind speed to cross the Australian coast. It impacted the Northern Territory and Far North Queensland in April 2006. In January 2011, Cyclone Yasi passed over Tully and resulted in an estimated $3.6 billion worth of damage, making it the costliest cyclone ever to hit Australia.
Tropical North Queensland
The name Tropical North Queensland is sometimes used to refer to the region. However, the phrase is ambiguous and may be used to name a wider area including parts of North Queensland, or even Mackay.
- National Regional Profile: Far North (Statistical Division) Archived 29 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 27 January 2012.
- Sam Davis (2 August 2012). "Queensland roads holding back nation's fresh fruit". ABC Far North Queensland. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Tony Moore (14 April 2014). "'World's biggest' silica mine damaged by Cyclone Ita". Brisbane Times. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "Bauxite and aluminia operations". Operations & financial report. Rio Tinto Alcan. 6 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "The economic and social impacts of tourism in the Far North Queensland planning region" (PDF). Planning Information and Forecasting Unit. Queensland Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- Office of economic and statistical research[permanent dead link]
- This Wikipedia article incorporates CC-BY-4.0 licensed text from: "Yalanji". Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages map. State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- Anna Salleh (29 November 2006). "Amber fossils a first for Australia". ABC Science Online. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
- "Daintree, Richard (1832–1878)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Shilton, Peter (2005). Natural areas of Queensland. Mount Gravatt, Queensland: Goldpress. pp. 16, 17, 29, 32. ISBN 0-9758275-0-2.
- Jonathan Nott & Matthew Hayne (2000). "How high was the storm surge from Tropical Cyclone Mahina?" (PDF). Australian Emergency Management. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Marina Kamenev (2 February 2011). "Australia's worst cyclones: timeline". Australian Geographic. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Tropical Queensland's Number 1 Events Calendar showcasing the region". www.tnqevents.com.au. Archived from the original on 12 March 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Tropical North Queensland - No Place Like it On Earth". Tropical North QLD. Archived from the original on 7 March 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- Amey, Andrew (29 April 2019). "Wildlife of tropical North Queensland : Cooktown to Mackay". Queensland Museum. Retrieved 29 April 2019 – via Trove.
- Watch historical footage of Babinda, Cairns and Far North Queensland from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.