Named after merchant, writer and printer William Caxton, the thoroughfare developed considerably alongside the subdivision of land in the 1860s. The ensuing decades saw the construction of (1864), the Baroona Oddfellows hall (1883) and the Prince Alfred Hotel (1887). An electric tramline was constructed between 1897 and 1898. The Ithaca Baths were constructed around 1905.
In order to ease congestion, the street was grade-separated at its intersection with Hale Street in the 1960s.
Since the 1980s, Caxton Street has established itself as a thriving nightlife precinct, with an array of nightclubs, restaurants and live entertainment venues. The Caxton Street Seafood and Wine Festival has been held in the street annually since 1994. Caxton Street is also famous for the 'running of the buses', an annual event during the Australian Rugby League's State of Origin series, at which thousands of fans flock to the street in order to cheer their team's bus and boo their respective opposition as they proceed to Lang Park.
During the 2014 G-20 Brisbane summit, Burmese president Thein Sein and German chancellor Angela Merkel, as well as delegates of the United Nations, reportedly stayed at Gambaro's Hotel, located on the street. During her visit, Merkel stopped in at bars on Caxton Street and posed for photos with locals. During this time a strong police presence was present on Caxton street, along with a high protective steel and perspex barrier outside the hotel.
- Petrie Terrace
- Hale Street
- Castlemaine Street / Dowse Street
- "Potter about Petrie Terrace Heritage Trail". Brisbane City Council Heritage Trails. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "The Electric Trams: Laying the lines". The Brisbane Courier. National Library of Australia. 14 May 1897. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Bardon-Upper Paddington: a picturesque residential suburb". The Brisbane Courier. National Library of Australia. 14 June 1930. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "No place for faint-hearted: Maroons return to Caxton St". The Australian. 14 July 2009.
- "G20 will linger at Caxton". Westside News. Milton, Qld. 26 November 2014.
- "Suite dreams await G20 powerbrokers". The Courier Mail. 8 November 2014.
- "G20 Brisbane: German Chancellor Angela Merkel stops by Caxton Street bars, takes selfies". ABC News. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
Media related to Caxton Street, Brisbane at Wikimedia Commons