Native Police, Rockhampton, 1864

Australian native police units, consisting of Aboriginal troopers under the command usually of a single white officer, existed in various forms in all Australian mainland colonies during the nineteenth and, in some cases, into the twentieth centuries. The Native Police were utilised as a cost-effective and brutal paramilitary instrument in the expansion and protection of the British colonial frontier in Australia. Mounted Aboriginal troopers of the Native Police, armed with rifles, carbines and swords, escorted surveying groups, pastoralists and prospectors into frontier areas. They would usually then establish base camps and patrol these areas to enforce warrants, conduct punitive missions against resisting local Aboriginal groups, and fulfil various other duties. To maintain the imperial British method of "divide and conquer" and to reduce desertions, the Aboriginal men within the Native Police were routinely recruited from areas that were very distant from the frontier places in which they were deployed.[1] As the troopers were Aboriginal, this benefited the colonists by minimising both the wages of the police and the potential for Aboriginal revenge attacks against white people. It also increased the efficiency of the force as the Aboriginal troopers were vastly superior in their ability to track down dissidents in often poorly charted and difficult terrain.[2] The first government funded force was the Native Police Corps, established in 1837 in the Port Phillip District of the then Australian colony of New South Wales (now Victoria).[3] From 1848 another force was organised in New South Wales, which operated mostly within the borders of the later colony of Queensland.[4] This force, sometimes called the "Native Mounted Police Force", was the largest and longest lasting of the mainland forces, and is best known for conducting widespread extrajudicial shootings of Aboriginal people under the official euphemism of "dispersal".[5] It existed from 1848 to about 1915, when the last Native Police camps in Queensland were closed.[6] The method of "dispersal" against Aboriginal people was also employed by the Native Police of other colonies and also by groups such as pastoral station workers,[7] the colonial British Army[8] and the Border Police. The government of South Australia set up a short-lived Native Police force in 1852, which was re-established in 1884 and deployed into what is now the Northern Territory.[9] The colonial Western Australian government also initiated a formal Native Police force in 1840 under the command of John Nicol Drummond.[10] Other privately funded native police systems were also occasionally used in Australia, such as the native constabulary organised by the Australian Agricultural Company in the 1830s.[11] Native Police forces were also officially implemented in the Papua and New Guinea territories administered by colonial Queensland and Australian governments from 1890 until the 1970s.[12] The Australian government also organised a native police force on Nauru during its administration of the island from 1923 until 1968.[13]

Early prototypes of native police

The general template for native police forces in Australia was the sepoy and sowar armies of the East India Company. However, the more compact forces of the British imperial frontier like the Cape Regiment in southern Africa and the Kaffir and Malay Corps in Ceylon are a closer comparison.[14] Before the creation of the first official Native Police forces, there were some informal and privately funded examples of utilising Aboriginal men as enforcers of colonial British rule in Australia.

Hawkesbury/Nepean

The frequently violent process of taking control of the land from the Aboriginal people in this area was officially left to the settlers themselves,[15] who were reinforced, at times of major conflict, with soldiers "to inflict exemplary and severe punishments".[16] Coercing and influencing "friendly" Aboriginal people into assisting with the capture or elimination of other "hostile natives" was quickly adopted as a method of improving the efficiency of these punitive missions.[17]

In 1805, Hawkesbury chief constable Andrew Thompson exploited intra-clan rivalries by equipping two Darug men with firearms to aid in the destruction of another group of Darug. Seven or eight "hostile natives" were killed as a result and the two mercenaries were each promised a wife from the women seized during the raid.[18] Armed Aboriginal men were also used to capture runaway convicts in the region and John Macarthur sometimes appeared at public functions with a bodyguard of uniformed Dharawal and Gandangara men.[19]

Bathurst

In 1824, at the conclusion of the Bathurst War against the Wiradjuri, Governor Brisbane sent Major James Thomas Morisset, commandant of the British forces at Bathurst, a letter congratulating him on his efforts. In this letter, Brisbane outlines his desire to give "rewards to the natives who assisted in the police" and advised Morisset that he had "directed £50 subject to detailed accounts of its expenditure" to be at his disposal.[20]

Van Diemen's Land

Musquito was a Hawkesbury Aboriginal man who was exiled first to Norfolk Island in 1805, then to Van Diemen's Land in 1813. He proved to be a valuable asset to the government there in tracking down bushrangers. He later became a renegade and was himself tracked down and shot in the groin by another Hawkesbury aboriginal named Teague. Teague was sent by Hawkesbury settler Edward Luttrell to capture Musquito on the promise of a whaleboat as payment. Teague never received the boat and Musquito was hanged in 1825.[21] In the 1830s, John Batman also used armed Aboriginal men from the Sydney region such as Pigeon and Tommy to assist in his roving parties to capture or kill indigenous Tasmanians.[22]

Newcastle/Port Stephens

Up until at least 1830s, Aboriginal men around the Newcastle and Port Macquarie penal settlements were regularly utilised to recapture escaped convicts. Men such as Biraban and Jemmy Jackass would track down the runaways, disable them with spears, strip them and return them to the soldiers for payment of blankets and corn.[23]

At nearby Port Stephens, the Australian Agricultural Company had obtained a million acre land acquisition. In the early 1830s, the superintendent of the company, Sir Edward Parry, established a private native constabulary to augment a small garrison of soldiers. In one instance, these black constables, such as Jonathan and William, were tasked to search for three Aboriginal people who had murdered a man named Hogue[24] and runaways.[25] Parry was later officially accused of offering rewards on the heads of certain aboriginal people, to which he stated that 'unequivocally to declare that I never, directly or indirectly, offered any such Reward'.[26] By 1841, the new superintendent P.P. King still employed black constables, but their duties may have been limited to dingo culling.[27]

Goulburn

Also in the 1830s, Major Edmund Lockyer a magistrate in the Goulburn region, employed at least one Aboriginal constable who captured murderers and gangs of armed bushrangers in the region.[28]

Port Phillip District and surrounds (later known as Victoria)

In the late 1830s, the NSW government found it was having trouble financing the NSW Mounted Police which was a corps of mounted soldiers that since 1825 operated as the main enforcers of colonial rule in frontier areas.[29] Officials looked at cheaper alternatives and came up with two solutions. One was the Border Police, which was a mounted force of armed convicts under the command of a commissioner, and the other was to trial a force of armed and mounted Aboriginal police under the command of white officers. By 1840 the Border Police became the main replacement for the NSW Mounted Police along the frontier, while the Native Police Corps, as the Aboriginal force was known, was limited initially to one division in the Port Phillip District of the colony, around Melbourne. Requests for the establishment of a Native Police Corps were made from as early as 1837 when Captain William Lonsdale proposed legislation for its formation.[30]

Establishment

In October 1837, Christian Ludolph Johannes de Villiers was appointed to command the first official Native Police troopers from their station at Nerre Nerre Warren. It was disbanded briefly in January 1838 but reorganised in April of the same year with their new headquarters in Jolimont where the MCG carpark is now situated. Due to funding problems, the force was again dissolved in 1839. These issues delayed reformation of the corps until Superintendent Charles La Trobe indicated he was willing to underwrite the costs in 1842.[6] A significant factor in the restoration of the force was the successful capture of five Tasmanian aboriginal people near Westernport in 1840 by local Aboriginal men who were attached to a party of Border Police and soldiers.

Native Police of Port Phillip, 1850

Henry EP Dana was selected to command the corps in 1842. Except for a brief period where the corps was based at Merri Creek,[6] the headquarters was at the Aboriginal Protectorate Station at Nerre Nerre Warren, near to present day Dandenong about 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-east of Melbourne. The force made use of Aboriginal men from the Wurundjeri and Bunurong tribes and was made up of 60 members, three-quarters of whom were "natives".[31] There were two goals in such a force: to make use of the indigenous peoples' tracking abilities, as well as to assimilate the Aboriginal troopers into white society.[31] Both La Trobe and William Thomas, Protector of Aborigines, expected that the men would give up their traditional way of life when exposed to the discipline of police work. To their disappointment, troopers continued to participate in corroborees and in ritual fighting, although not in uniform.[6]

As senior Wurundjeri elder, Billibellary's cooperation for the proposal was important for its success, and after deliberation he backed the initiative and even proposed himself for enlistment. He donned the uniform and enjoyed the status of parading through the camp, but was careful to avoid active duty as a policeman to avoid a conflict of interest between his duties as a Wurundjeri ngurungaeta.[6]

After about a year Billibellary resigned from the Native Police Corps when he found that it was to be used to capture and kill other natives. He did his best from then on to undermine the corps and as a result many native troopers deserted and few remained longer than three or four years.[32]

Duties

The main duty of the Native Police was to be deployed to areas around the Port Phillip region where Aboriginal resistance to British occupation was unable to be controlled by armed settlers. Once in these areas, the troopers and their officers were placed under the command of the local Commissioner for Crown Lands, who would then seek out and capture or destroy the dissident groups and individuals. In addition to Native Police, the Commissioner also had the troopers of the Border Police and NSW Mounted Police as well as armed volunteer settlers at his disposal to conduct punitive raids on Aboriginal people.[33]

Other more minor duties of the native police included searching for missing persons, carrying messages, and escorting dignitaries through unfamiliar territory. During the goldrush era, they were also used to patrol goldfields and search for escaped prisoners.[34] They were provided with uniforms, firearms, food rations and a rather dubious salary. However, the lure of the goldfields, poor salary and Dana's eventual death in 1852 led to the official disintegration of his Native Police Corps in January 1853.[35]

During its existence, there were three main areas of activity of this corps: Portland Bay, Murray River, and Gippsland. Divisions of the Native Police would be deployed to these areas in the winter of each year until 1852 and spend the rest of the year mostly garrisoned at the Narre Narre Warren barracks. Winter was chosen as the period of active duty as the target aboriginals were more sedentary in the colder periods and therefore much easier to find.[33]

Frontier clashes

Portland Bay-Western District

Native police were called upon to take part in massacres of other Aboriginal people in the Victorian Western District in 1843.[36] Operations in this year included attacks upon the Gunditjmara and Jardwadjali at the Crawford River, Mt Eckersley, Victoria Range and at Mt Zero. Upon return to Melbourne one of the troopers boasted about an incident in which 17 Aboriginal men had been killed by the corps. From reports it seems likely the troopers were called upon by their commander, Henry EP Dana, to shoot rather than try to make arrests:

"Captain say big one stupid catch them very good shoot them, you blackfellows, no shoot them me hand cuff you and send you to jail." One of the troopers is recorded by Thomas to have said.[37]

With reduced reports of attacks in the Western District following two years of policing, two new troopers were signed up from the Port Fairy area in 1845.[38]

Although 1843 appears to be the year of the largest casualties from the corps in this region, operations in other years up to 1847 resulted in further mass fatalities namely at Lake Learmonth, Cape Otway, the Eumeralla area and at Captain Firebrace's Mt Vectis property.[39]

The Native Police based at Portland Bay were ordered to conduct operations across the border at Mount Gambier in South Australia in 1844. Likewise, South Australian police forces at the same time were used to investigate the rape of an aboriginal boy named Syntax near Portland. The officer involved found that the boy was shot by Native Police.[40]

Murray Region

The Native Police deployed to this region operated over a large area that included forays across the Murray into the Tumut region right down to the Wimmera. They worked under their own officers such as Cowan, Walsh and Dana while also under the authority of Commissioners like Smythe, Bingham, Powlett and McDonald. In 1843 and 1844, Commissioner Smythe led large punitive missions with forces including Native Police along the Moira area of the Murray, down Mitta Mitta creek and along the Edward River. Other collisions also occurred near Tongala. Further down the Murray, punitive operations were also conducted near McLeod's station in 1846, Lake Bael Bael in 1846 and around Swan Hill in 1850. Swan Hill and Echuca (Maidan's Punt) became bases for Native Police operations.[41] A Wemba Wemba man managed to kill a trooper near Swan Hill. He, in the company of another aboriginal man, approached a Native Police camp and induced one of the Aboriginal troopers to go fishing. After walking about half a mile, they held the trooper down and excised his kidney fat, leaving him to die.[42]

Gippsland

Native Police operations in Gippsland began in 1843 with the appointment of Commissioner Tyers to the region.[43] Tyers had command of a permanent force of Border Police based at Eagle Point augmented with a seasonal deployment of native police based at Boisdale. The closeness of the Border Police and the Native Police is demonstrated by officer Windredge who was employed in both forces in Gippsland. In 1845 and 1846, Tyers led extensive punitive raids with his forces around Lake Wellington, up the Avon River and down to the Lakes region.[33]

In late 1846 and early 1847, in a horrible example of British colonial values, a rumour began that a shipwrecked white woman had been abducted by a Gunai clan. Outraged Victorian sensibility demanded both the rescue of the supposed damsel and the wholesale punishment of the natives involved. A special Native Police mission was organised in September 1846 under HEP Dana that failed to produce the white woman. A private posse of 10 armed Aboriginals and 6 whites was then organised under de Villiers which also did not produce the woman. The rumour of the white woman was proved false, but the results for the Gunai were devastating. Tyers estimated that the two punitive groups killed at least 50 Aboriginals and wounded many more.[33]

At the same time, more regular combined Native and Border Police operations resulted in mass killings of Gunai around Boisdale and on the MacAllister River. There was a large punitive operation in late 1846 at the mouth of the Snowy River involving the forces being split into 3 groups to surround and engage aboriginals residing in the estuary area. The Native Police Corps then continued upstream along the river.[44] The brutality of these Gippsland Aboriginal men is demonstrated by the Protector Thomas being able to describe how they killed one man, two women and six children, returning with fragments of their flesh to eat, or returning with the mummified severed hands of the defeated as trophies.[45]

Western Australia

In the late 1830s, Western Australia was in a similar situation as the eastern colonies in that the regular Mounted Police force were proving expensive and increasingly ineffectual in subduing resisting Aboriginal people. This culminated in 1840 with the murders of a white woman and her child in York. John Nicol Drummond, a young man who had grown up amongst Aboriginal people in the areas of the Swan and Helena Valleys, was able to capture the perpetrator due to his knowledge of the local tribespeople. As a result, in August 1840 Drummond was rewarded with the title of Inspector in the newly formed Native Police. The Western Australian Native Police was smaller than those of other colonies in that usually only 2 or 3 mounted aboriginal constables were attached to the white officer. It was also different in that the officers were given monetary rewards for capturing wanted people and that they were placed under the control of the Native Protector. However, extrajudicial killings by the police upon Aboriginal people still occurred during the 1840s. The force also became less formalised in its command structure to the point where, in 1854, Drummond concurrently held the positions of Native Protector, magistrate and Superintendent of Police in the Champion Bay area. This situation gave Drummond complete freedom to subdue the natives around Geraldton in whatever method he deemed appropriate and a massacre of Aboriginals conducted by the police and armed stockholders at Bootenal swamp near Greenough was the result.[46]

The official term Native Police in the colony soon gradually phased out and was replaced with terms such as native constables and native assistants, but these operated in the same way as before. In 1865, Maitland Brown's extensive punitive expedition through the La Grange and Roebuck Bay areas utilised native police to aid in the summary executions of local Aboriginal people.[47] As late as the 1920s, native constables or trackers as they by then were called, aided white officers and stockmen in massacres of Aboriginal people. A famous example of this is the Forrest River massacre.[48]

New South Wales and Queensland

From 1839 the main frontier policing force in this colony were divisions of mounted convict soldiers known as the Border Police.[49] However, in the late 1840s with the end of convict transportation looming, a new source of cheap and effective troopers were required to subdue resistance along the ever-extending frontier. The need was especially apparent in the north as conflict between squatters and aboriginals toward the Darling Downs area was slowing pastoral expansion.[50] As a result, the NSW government passed legislation in 1848 to fund a new section of Native Police based upon the Port Phillip model.[51] Frederick Walker, a station manager and court official residing in the Murrumbidgee area, was appointed as the first Commandant of this Native Police force. Walker recruited 14 native troopers from four different language groups along the Murrumbidgee, Murray, and Edwards Rivers areas. These first troopers were Jack, Henry (both Wiradjuri), Geegwaw, Jacky Jacky, Wygatta, Edward, Logan (all Wemba-Wemba), Alladin, Paddy, Larry, Willy, Walter, Tommy Hindmarsh (all Barapa Barapa), and Yorky (Yorta Yorta). Logan and Jack who were both previously employed in the Border Police, were given the rank of corporal. Although most of the subsequent operations of this force over the following 60 years occurred in what is now Queensland, Native Police were stationed in various parts of New South Wales and patrolling continued there until at least 1868. These areas included Kempsey/Macleay River, Grafton/Ballina (Clarence River), Murrumbidgee, Lower Darling/Albert and Upper Darling/Paroo regions.

Initial deployment

This force was consolidated and trained by Walker at Deniliquin before traveling to the Darling River where the first Aboriginal attack occurred 100 miles below Fort Bourke at a place called Moanna, resulting in at least 5 natives being killed by the troopers.[52] In 1849 he mobilised his force north beyond the MacIntyre River to conduct missions to police the out-stations.[53] Once arriving on the Macintyre River on 10 May 1849, the force checked the aggressions of the local Aboriginals, and when trying to capture six Aboriginal men charged with murder, there were "some lives lost". They were then deployed to the Condamine River where the "Fitzroy Downs blacks" were routed and another group were "compelled to fly" from the area.[54] One of these skirmishes was described as a dawn raid on an Aboriginal encampment where around 100 native people were killed and two Native Police troopers were fatally injured.[55]

Walker found most of the squatters in the region thought the Native Police existed to shoot down the natives so they would not have to. Walker advocated a method of "bringing in" the Aboriginal people, allowing them onto pastoral stations, where they could obtain a lawful means of a livelihood. Those who stayed away were consequently regarded as potential enemies and were at high risk of being targeted in punitive missions. Walker's measure of success was the resulting increase in land values.[56] These first actions of the Native Police reduced to great effect Aboriginal resistance against squatters in the Macintyre and Condamine regions.[57]

Expansion to Maranoa, Burnett, Dawson and Wide Bay areas

Walker returned to Deniliquin in July 1850 to recruit 30 new troopers[58] in order to enable an expansion into the Wide Bay–Burnett region.[59] With these fresh reinforcements, he created four divisions of Native Police, one based at Augustus Morris' Callandoon station, one at Wide Bay–Burnett, one in the Maranoa Region, and one roving division. While Walker was away, the squatter at Goondiwindi station, Richard Purvis Marshall, assumed command of the Native Police operations. Marshall, with the native troopers and contingents of armed stockmen, conducted punitive raids at Tieryboo, Wallan, Booranga and Copranoranbilla Lagoon, shooting Aboriginals and destroying their camps. This resulted in an inquiry by the local Crown Lands Commissioner and a vaguely worded official reminder from the NSW Attorney General to only shoot in "extreme cases".[60]

In 1851, Commandant Walker with his newly appointed officers Richard Purvis Marshall, George Fulford, Doolan and Skelton conducted wide-ranging and frequent operations resulting in many dispersals and summary killings. Dispersals of large numbers of Aborigines occurred at Dalgangal, Mary River, Toomcul, Goondiwindi and at various places along the Maranoa River. Governor Fitzroy noted in the 1851 end of year report that a great many blacks were killed, however no official action was taken to change the aggressive functioning of the Native Police.[60]

Fraser Island

On 18 February 1851, a meeting of magistrates was held at the newly established town of Maryborough. Three Native Police officers, Commissioner Bidwill and squatter Edmund B. Uhr were present, issuing warrants against a number of Aboriginal men accused of murder and felony. The nearby Fraser Island was being used as a sanctuary for these Aboriginals (the Badtjala people). It was not until late December 1851 that the force was ready to search Fraser Island. Walker, Marshall, Doolan with their three divisions of troopers, together with local landholders the Leith Hay brothers and Mr Wilmot set out down the Mary River aboard Captain Currie's Margaret and Mary schooner. Aboriginals in a stolen dinghy were shot at along the way and the boat seized. The force landed on the west coast of the island where the divisions split up to scour the region. During the night a group of Aboriginal men attempted to surprise Marshall's section resulting in two Aboriginal men being shot. Bad weather hampered operations and Commandant Walker subsequently allowed his division to track down other groups of Badtjala without him. This group followed the local Aboriginals across to the east coast where they "took to the sea".[61] The force returned to Maryborough in early January 1852 and Captain Currie received a reward of £10 for his contribution.[62]

Consolidation of the Native Police

The year 1852 saw further recruitment and expansion of the Native Police to 8 divisions. Forty-eight new troopers were signed up mostly from the northern inland rivers of NSW. Lieutenant John Murray was appointed to the 4th Division, Lieut. Blandford to the 3rd Division and Sergeants Skelton, Pincolt and Richard A. Dempster were also appointed as officers in charge of other divisions. The Traylan barracks on the Burnett River near the now-abandoned site of Ceratodus, north of present-day Eidsvold, was established while the other major barracks, besides Callandoon, was at Wondai Gumbal near Yuleba. Sgt. Dempster was responsible for several large scale dispersals in 1852. The first was at Wallumbilla where an ex-trooper named Priam and a number of others were shot dead. Dempster then traveled to Ogilvie's Wachoo station near St. George and shot a large number of Aboriginals with the aid of a man named Johnson who was the superintendent of the property. Johnson also shot dead a white storeperson in a "friendly fire" incident during this dispersal. Dempster, having fallen sick, then allowed Johnson to take charge of his division and lead it to Yamboukal (modern-day Surat) where a lot of Mandandanji working peacefully on this pastoral station were subsequently killed.[63] As a result of this, Dempster was suspended for 3 months. It appears that neither Johnson nor Dempster faced any legal repercussions.[64] Sgt. Skelton also led a number of dispersals across the Dawson River area and down to Ukabulla (also near Surat) where Mandandanji leader Bussamarai was killed.[65] Collisions also occurred between John Murray's troopers and Kabi Kabi at Widgee and with Walker's forces and the Bigambul south of Callandoon. Native Police were also employed tracking down Chinese coolie labourers who had run away from the stations of powerful squatter capitalists such as Gordon Sandeman.

Deployment to Port Curtis

In 1853 several new Sub-Lieutenants were appointed including John O'Connell Bligh, Edric Norfolk Vaux Morisset, Frederick Keen, Samuel Crummer, Francis Nicoll and Frederick Walker's brother Robert G. Walker. The Sydney Morning Herald described the operations of Lieutenants Marshall and John Murray along the Burnett River as "taking and shooting hosts of murderers, never stopping, never tiring".[66]

New barracks were built at Rannes, Walla and at Swanson's Yabba station at the top of Yabba Falls. Squatters Holt and Hay pursued an overland path to the taking up of lands toward Port Curtis. Two men accompanying them were killed by Aboriginals and as a consequence, the 1st Division of Native Police under Commandant Walker was sent into the area.[67] Additionally, Lieutenant John Murray and the 3rd Division with the troopers of Sgt. Doolan were deployed by ship to Gladstone to ensure a strong garrison at the fledgling settlement there. The surveyor sent to mark out Gladstone, Francis MacCabe, felt so unsafe that he established the camp in an area close to the coast, two miles away from any freshwater.[68]

Murrumbidgee

As Walker's force originated in this area, native troopers from outside this region were utilised to punish Aboriginal resistance in the Murrumbidgee. For instance, in 1852, after the murder of an American worker at Deniliquin, Sergeant O'Halloran from Moulamein imported both native and white troopers from Victoria to shoot Aboriginals as a collective punishment. His force drove a camp of people, most of them older women and children, across the Edward River, fatally wounding 2 women and a child.[69]

By 1853, 12 troopers of Native Police were officially stationed in the Murrumbidgee District under the command of the local Commissioner for Crown Lands.[70] The need for native troopers in this region was soon deemed superfluous and the government dissolved this detachment in 1857.[71] However, the Murrumbidgee was still utilised as a recruitment area for troopers to fight in Queensland with Lieut. John Murray returning to the area as late as 1865 to enlist local Aboriginal men.[72] In 1864, Murray visited the region bringing with him the remaining four living troopers from Walker's first recruitment in 1848. After 15 years service, one of them was lucky enough to be reunited with his father in Echuca.[73]

Grafton/Ballina

In 1853, Walker reluctantly deployed the 5th Section of the Native Police under 2nd Lieut. Edric Norfolk Vaux Morisset to the Clarence River region. He thought this was a "retrograde step" as he viewed the Aboriginal problem is this area as minor.[74] But under pressure from powerful squatters in the area like William Forster he relented even though the section did not have enough horses. Morisset and his 12 troopers were stationed on the Orara River at Braunstone[75] 10 miles south of Grafton and were involved in two major dispersals not long after. Morisset was given warrants for the arrest of some Aboriginals who worked as shearers at Newton Boyd and after arriving in the area on a borrowed horse, ordered his troops to open fire. Several wanted men were shot and some captured, although other reports claim many Aboriginals were killed. This resulted in a government inquiry but no real changes being made.[76] The other significant punitive raid occurred in East Ballina, where the troopers conducted an early morning raid on Aboriginals sleeping on the slopes near Black Head. This resulted in at least 30-40 deaths and many wounded. Again complaints were made to the government about the massacre but again no changes resulted.[77] Edric Morisset later became Commandant of the Native Police based in Brisbane and was replaced on the Clarence by 2nd Lieut. John O'Connell Bligh. A few years later when a Clarence River squatter was asked if he thought any Aboriginal criminals were still at large, he simply replied "No, I think they are dead."[78] The Native Police were officially withdrawn from the area in 1859. Sub-Inspector Galbraith was dismissed in 1863 for the accidental shooting death of a native girl while out "routing the blacks" near Grafton.[79]

Kempsey/Macleay River

Native Police trooper

In 1854, Sub Lieut. Dempster who was initially stationed as a sergeant at Grafton with Morisset was ordered to travel to the Macleay River with six troopers and set up a Native Police station near Kempsey.[80] Squatters in the area had recently placed official requests for a section to be garrisoned on the Macleay.[81] The Native Police camp was located at the old Border Police barracks at Belgrave Flat near Belgrave Falls just west of Kempsey.[82] In 1859, 2nd Lieut. Richard Bedford Poulden (sometimes written as Poulding) was deployed to Belgrave Flat with his troopers from the Upper Dawson area in Queensland. Poulden was previously an Ensign in 56th Foot who fought in the Crimean War, and was the great-grandson of the Earl of Devon.[83] In addition to performing patrolling duties, he also came for the purpose of recruiting more troopers.[84] In 1859 he conducted a raid on Aboriginals living at Christmas Creek near Frederickton.[85] He captured a Dunghutti man called Doughboy who had murdered a sawyer named Dan Page. In 1860, Poulden was soon called out again to capture Aboriginal criminals who had laid siege to Mrs McMaugh at Nulla Nulla Creek. Poulden and his six troopers tracked them up Five Day Creek to the ranges where several were killed after a gunfight. An orphaned child was taken after the skirmish and delivered to local Towal Creek squatter John Warne to look after.[86] The native police involved in such raids used to strip naked and would wear red headbands to distinguish them from the "wild blacks", so as to prevent shooting each other by mistake.[87]

Not long after this, at the request of prominent station manager John Vaughan McMaugh, the Belgrave Flat Native Police barracks was moved to Nulla Nulla station near Bellbrook.[88] After some cedar cutters were hacked to death and others had their skulls smashed in during an ambush, stockmen and native police troopers went out after the murderers. Again another battle ensued and in the end there were a great number of dead and wounded Dunghutti. The creek where this occurred was named Waterloo Creek (halfway between Dyke River and Georges Creek) as a result of the carnage. Four prisoners were taken.[89]

In 1863, Senior Constable Nugent took control of the Native Police at Nulla Nulla. In September 1864, he and his troopers were involved in a mission that ranged from Georges Creek, Lagoon Creek and then up Five Day Creek to Moy Buck Mountain. When the Aboriginal camp was discovered the Aboriginal fled in all directions.[90] Later in 1864, there is a record of the murderer named Blue Shirt being captured and handcuffed to the stirrup of a horse belonging to a Native Police trooper. The horse subsequently become frightened and kicked him to death.[89] Names of some of the troopers posted to the Macleay region include Carlo, Quilt, Paddy and Dundally.

Nulla Nulla barracks appears to have closed in 1865 when Henry Sauer bought the property and turned it into a dairy farm. In 1885, 36.4 hectares of the property was gazetted as an Aboriginal Reserve.[91] In 1902 the skeletons of a woman and child with shot holes in their skulls were found on Taylors Arm Mountain in the Macleay region. It was reported as a double murder mystery.[92] Local Aboriginal Left-Handed Billy solved the case by stating that there was a Native Police camp at Nulla Nulla and these two people were some of its victims. Billy offered to take the authorities and show them the other places where people were shot.[93]

Lower Darling and Albert Districts

These districts appear to have overlapped in their geographical jurisdictions, but they were treated for the most part as separate areas. The Lower Darling extended from the confluence of the Murrumbidgee with the Murray, up to the Darling and north to Fort Bourke. The Albert region was the area west of the Darling River. In late 1853, Stephen Cole, the Commissioner for Crown Lands for the Lower Darling district had organised six troopers for his Native Police based in Euston.[94] This force was involved in arresting European sly-grog sellers.[95] At the same time, Commissioner for Crown Lands for the Albert District, G.M. Perry, had organised another six Native Police troopers based at Moorana, an administrative town that used to exist just west of Wentworth.[96]

By the late 1850s the jurisdiction of the native troopers had transferred from the Crown Lands department to the Native Police proper, with E.M. Lockyer[97] and A. T. Perry[98] being appointed 2nd Lieutenants for the Lower Darling and Albert districts respectively. Perry and his troopers, while investigating the death of a white man at Baker's station, threatened and watched four aboriginals residing on the property into making confessions. While they were being escorted to prison, they escaped, and after refusing to surrender, one was shot dead.[99] The other three managed to escape but were found at Euston where two more were shot dead. Their hands were cut off and presented as proof of their demise.[100] Perry also dispersed a large congregation of Aboriginals assembled at the Murray-Darling junction.[101] When investigating another murder of a white man near Menindie, Perry had the ring leader tied to a tree and shot dead as an example in "keeping the blacks quiet".[102] It appears that the Native Police units were dissolved in the Lower Darling and Albert Districts by the early 1860s.

Upper Darling and Paroo

Lieutenant Perry occasionally sent several native troopers into the Upper Darling areas to accompany official expeditions into the area.[103] A police station was established at Tintinalogy between Menindee and Wilcannia.[104]

As late as 1868, Native Police based at Thargomindah in Queensland conducted patrols down the Paroo River as far as Fort Bourke in New South Wales. Sub-Inspector W.R.O. Hill described one of these patrols. Hill saw one of Aboriginal troopers named Vick carrying a four-year-old son of an aboriginal man who "had been deservedly shot". The boy spat in the eye of the trooper who then killed the boy by smashing his head into a tree. Although Hill flogged the trooper as punishment, as Hill stated, it showed "the savage instinct will come out in the aboriginal."[105]

Dismissal of Frederick Walker

The size of the Native Police expanded further in 1854 to 10 Divisions. Commandant Walker was suspended from duty in September and the inquiry, to be held in Brisbane, was set for December. The inquiry was closed to the public and the report was kept secret for two years and even then only fragments of information were released. It revealed that Walker arrived at the inquiry completely drunk and surrounded by nine of his black troopers. The troopers were denied entry, and after an attempt to continue with proceedings, the inebriation of Walker forced an adjournment to the inquiry which was later quickly and conveniently abandoned altogether. An attempt by 2nd Lieut. Irving to confront Walker, resulted in the ex-Commandant drawing a sword against him.[106] Eventually, Walker wandered off and was subsequently dismissed from the Native Police. He was later apprehended at Bromelton, charged with the embezzlement of £100 and sent to Sydney.[107]

Period of decline, Expansion to the Fitzroy River area

After the dismissal of Frederick Walker, the force entered a period of poor funding and uncertainty. Many troopers either deserted or were discharged. Richard Purvis Marshall was promoted to Commandant but was soon discharged from the position after complaining of the trooper reductions. With the force in a weakened state, aboriginal resistance became more bold. In September 1855, in retaliation against two previous dispersals and for the stealing of women, Gangulu warriors attacked the Native Police barracks at Rannes, killing three troopers of R. G. Walker's division. Mt. Larcom station was also attacked around this time, resulting in the deaths of five station-hands. Multiple punitive missions were conducted by John Murray and R. G. Walker's sections after these attacks, including one which went north of the Fitzroy River. Charles Archer of Gracemere provided assistance with this dispersal by attaching his own private native troopers to the corps. This augmented party killed 14 aboriginals.[108] In revenge, these aboriginals then attacked Elliot's new pastoral run at Nine Mile on the Fitzroy River, killing one person and wounding three including Elliot.

Charles Archer had arrived in Gracemere in August 1855 with an escort of 35 people including four Native Police troopers and four "Burnett boys". Once arrived, he obtained the protective services of a local Fitzroy River clan led by "King Harold" which Archer utilised to "restrain the outside blacks".[109] In July 1856, Richard E. Palmer travelled to the Fitzroy River from Gladstone, escorted by sub-Lieutenant W.D.T. Powell and his troopers, to set up the first store at Rockhampton. Powell went first to this area and constructed a Native Police barracks. This was the first habitable dwelling erected by the British in Rockhampton. It was on the south side of the river at the end of Albert Street.[110]

With increased attacks around this time and reports of discharged troopers conducting armed robberies around the region,[111] squatters began to call for an immediate re-strengthening of the Native Police.[112] A select committee inquiry into improving the Native Police was implemented and in late 1856 the control of the Native Police was transferred from the Inspector General of Police in Sydney to John Clements Wickham who was the Government Resident in Brisbane. New officers such as Moorhead, Thomas Ross, Walter David Taylor Powell, Francis Allman, Evan Williams, Frederick Carr and Charles Phibbs were appointed. In May 1857, the vacant position of Commandant was filled by E.N.V. Morisset and the headquarters of the Native Police was shifted from Traylan to Cooper's Plains just west of Maryborough. However, even with this reorganisation, strong indigenous resistance continued.

Attacks at Miriam Vale, Eurombah and Hornet Bank

After an aboriginal ambush at Miriam Vale near Gladstone, it was determined that Curtis Island (like Fraser Island previously) was a safehaven for natives that should be breached. 2nd Lieutenant R. G. Walker organised a seaborne punitive expedition that included several troopers, 2nd Lieut. W. D. T. Powell and local squatters J. Landsborough and Ranken. The mission was a failure and despite shooting two aboriginals in a canoe, Curtis Island was deemed dangerously populated.[108]

On the Dawson River at Eurombah station 2nd Lieut. Ross with local squatter Boulton carried out several punitive missions killing at least 10 Aboriginals. Trooper desertions continued to be a problem in this area and containment of aboriginal resistance was problematic. A large attack on Eurombah station resulted in the deaths of six station workers. Officers Ross, Powell and E.N.V. Morisset led subsequent deadly punitive raids. Ross was suspended due to neglect of duty for allowing the Eurombah attack to occur.[108]

Native Police dispersal

Not long after, on 27 October 1857, a combined Aboriginal offensive on neighbouring Hornet Bank station resulted in the death of eleven settlers. This was, at the time, the largest loss of British life in conflict on the Australian frontier and with the concurrent Indian Mutiny threatening the basis of British global colonisation, the military response was predictably merciless. Officer W. D. T. Powell was the first Native Police officer to arrive and immediately tracked down and killed at least eight Aboriginals. Multiple punitive missions conducted in the subsequent months under Powell, Carr and Moorhead killed at least 70 aboriginals. These shootings were blantantly indiscriminate with W. D. T. Powell reporting shooting down three unarmed Aboriginal women while they were running away.[108]

In addition to the official government Native Police response, there were at least three other private militias formed in the Dawson River area to conduct wholesale killings of Aboriginals. The first was the private native police formed by ex-commandant Frederick Walker. This group consisted of ten ex-Native Police troopers which conducted missions as far south as Surat.[113] The second was the so-called "Browne's" death squad that consisted of a posse of twelve local squatters which killed around 90 aboriginals.[5] The last was the group associated with William Fraser, who had most of his family killed in the Hornet Bank massacre. This group killed around 40 Aboriginals, some of which were buried beside a lagoon on Juandah creek.[114]

After Hornet Bank

Sketch of the retaliation after the Hornet Bank Massacre, 1925.jpg

Another government inquiry in Sydney was ordered in July 1858 which concluded with the recommendation that "there is no alternative but to carry matters through with a strong hand and punish with necessary severity all future outrages".[115] New officers were appointed including Frederick Wheeler and George Poultney Malcolm Murray and in August, Commandant Edric Morisset organised a large combined force of 17 troopers under Phibbs, Carr and G.P.M. Murray with a month's rations to scour the Upper Dawson area. The explorer A. C. Gregory accompanied this force and partook in their actions. Officers Bligh and Moorhead at the same time patrolled the stations adjoining the scrubs in the region.[108] Gwambegwine and Kinnoul near Taroom became barracks for the Native Police. Ex-Commandant Walker wrote several letters to the Attorney General admonishing the murders of innocent aboriginals including that of Tommy Hippi, Tahiti and the massacre of aboriginals at a Juandah courthouse after they were found not guilty of crime.[116]

Formation of the colony of Queensland

Queensland separated from New South Wales and became a self-governing British colony in December 1859. E.N.V. Morisset, in addition to retaining his role as Commandant of the Native Police, also became the Inspector General of Police in the new colony. The Native Police had even less checks and balances than it did previously in this new administration. Morisset appointed new officers such as A.M.G. Patrick, A.F. Matveieff, J.T. Baker as well as his own brother Rudolph S. Morisset.

The Native Police Force that operated in Queensland was the longest operating force of its kind in colonial Australian history. It was arguably also the most controversial. Its mode of operation cannot by any standard be classified as "law enforcement". From the period 1859 onward to the 1890s there are no signs that this force was engaged in anything but general punitive expeditions, commonly performed as deadly daybreak attacks on Aboriginal camps. All signs are that the force generally took no prisoners at the frontier and in the few cases on record when this did happen these prisoners were on record as having been shot during attempts to escape.[117]

In 1860 near Yuleba, a two-hour stand up battle between Lieutenant Carr's Native Police and the "Dawson blacks" led by Baulie (also known as Bilbah) resulted in Carr being wounded and Baulie and fifteen other Yiman being shot dead.[118] A traveler at the time described how some Aboriginal "refugees" of these upper Dawson River conflicts had encamped at Euthulla. Their wailing for their dead kept him awake at night and many had gunshot wounds, some being crippled by their injuries.[55]

In 1860, a number of settlers sent letters requesting Lieutenant Wheeler's aid in the Broadsound region, which was suffering from Aboriginal raids. On 24 December 1860, Lieutenant Wheeler and six of his Aboriginal troopers went to John Hardies' out station located at Fassifern and shot dead three Aboriginal males.[119] The subsequent newspaper coverage pushed the Queensland Government into organising an inquiry into the Native Police.

In evidence given at the 1861 Select Committee report on the Native Police, Lieutenant Carr gave many other examples of shootings of Aboriginals in the area.[120] Likewise, in the still unconquered Pine Rivers region just north of Brisbane, Lieut. Williams' patrol was attacked by around 300 Ningi Ningi warriors. Many of them were shot but of the eight troopers with Williams, one was killed and two were seriously wounded.[121] Seven "station blacks" were shot dead at Conyar by Native Police,[122] Lieut. Wheeler shot several innocent Aboriginals at Dugandan,[123] Lieut. John Murray conducted a massacre in the Wide Bay area[124] and officers John O'Connell Bligh and Rudolph Morisset indiscriminately shot "station blacks" on properties around the Conondale Range.[125] In a separate incident, Bligh also chased and shot dead some Aboriginals along the main street of Maryborough and into the river in broad daylight. Bligh received a special ceremony and a commemorative sword from the citizens of that town for his exploits.[126]

The Cullin-la-ringo massacre and its aftermath

The violence of the early 1860s culminated in the Cullin-la-ringo massacre which occurred on 17 October 1861. Aboriginals from the Nogoa River area, near modern-day Emerald, attacked Horatio Wills' newly formed pastoral station, resulting in the deaths of nineteen white settlers. One of the survivors, cricketer and Australian rules football founder Tom Wills, blamed the incident on Jesse Gregson, a local property manager who had previous to the attack went out and conducted a punitive mission with the aid of a detachment of Native Police under the command of A.M.G. Patrick against Aboriginals in the area. In his own diaries, Gregson reveals that he accidentally shot Patrick in the leg during this preliminary dispersal. Gregson and other squatters were involved in the initial punitive raids after the massacre, with Lieutenant Cave being the first Native Police officer on the scene not long after. He was soon joined by officers G.P.M. Murray, Morehead and the Commandant John O'Connell Bligh, and together they conducted a number of shooting patrols. The Queensland Governor estimated that up to 300 Aboriginals were indiscriminately killed in these retaliative operations.[127]

Inspectors John Marlow, G.P.M. Murray and Walter Compigne with Trooper Billy

Elsewhere in the colony, Lieutenant Wheeler and his detachment of Native police killed eight innocent Aboriginals at Caboolture.[128] Lieutenant John Marlow and his Native police was attacked in the Maranoa Region, resulting in the deaths of thirteen Aboriginal males.[129] In April 1861, George Elphinstone Dalrymple, the lands commissioner for the Leichhardt district, utilised two detachments of Native Police. Lieutenant Powell later conducting operations in that region.[130] The Queensland government budget for the force in 1862 was £14,541 which allowed for 17 officers, 11 NCOs, 7 cadets and 134 troopers.[131]

1864 restructure of the police

In 1864, all sections of police enforcement in Queensland underwent a major restructuring. Administration of the police, including that of the paramilitary Native Police, became centralised in Brisbane under the command of the Queensland Police Commissioner. The role of Commandant of the Native Police was abolished and the title of Lieutenant was replaced with Inspector. Although these changes to the Native Police appeared to give the force a more civilian role, in reality it remained a brutal instrument of enforcing British control in the colony. The new Commissioner, David Thompson Seymour, took up the position after resigning from the role of commanding officer of the British Army detachment in Queensland. Seymour recognised the importance of the Native Police in the British invasion of Aboriginal lands, and was focused on improving and expanding its capabilities.[132] Seymour remained in the commanding role of the Native Police for thirty years, a period in which around 20,000 Aboriginals were killed by this force.[133]

The mid 1860s was a period of great expansion of the British into the coastal and inland areas of north-eastern Australia. All these areas were of course inhabited by local Indigenous communities and the restructured, re-enhanced Native Police had a major role in the ruthless elimination of Aboriginal custodianship of the land. For example, in April 1864 the first British surveying group to assess the future site of Townsville left Bowen with the armed protection of eight troopers under the command of Inspector John Marlow and sub-Inspector E. B. Kennedy. This unit of Native Police conducted around four dispersals on this journey resulting in the deaths of at least 24 Aboriginal men. An unknown number of women and children were killed but it is recorded that 15 females were abducted by the troopers and taken back to the Don River barracks as "wives".[134] Inspector Marlow, who had replaced Inspector Powell at Bowen in 1863,[135] continued his work of "clearing the blacks" off the land after returning from this foundation expedition to Townsville.[136] Earlier on in that year, Marlow had also provided a Native Police escort for the voyage of George Elphinstone Dalrymple to establish the town of Cardwell. Marlow's troopers here also "dispersed" and "rather cut up" some local Aboriginals.[137]

The killing of Inspector Cecil Hill and subsequent massacres

Dispersal of Aboriginals

In May 1865, after leading a shooting raid upon a camp of Aboriginals at Pearl Creek near the modern day town of Duaringa, Inspector Cecil Hill was assassinated in a surprise revenge attack. Hill was the first Native Police officer in Australia to be killed in the Australian frontier wars. Chief Inspector G.P.M. Murray sent sub-Inspector Oscar Pescher and his troopers to conduct a series of reprisal raids in the district. Pescher's detachment was later reinforced by officers Blakeney and Bailey and their 12 troopers, the combined forces effecting a large massacre in the Expedition Range.[138]

In December 1864, an Aboriginal Native police officer under the command of sub-Inspector Thomas Coward's unit killed eight Aboriginals at Belyando,[139] while sub-Inspector Reginald Uhr with the aid of his troopers and local pastoralists killed a large number around Natal Downs.[140] The Aboriginal Native police, under the command of Officer Rogers shot six in self defence at Glenmore,[141] sub-Inspector Aubin doing likewise near Morinish[142] and at Yaamba.[143] Further north, sub-Inspector Robert Arthur Johnstone was leading killings of Aboriginal groups around Mackay[144] and Nebo,[145] while officers John Murray and Charles Blakeney headed sweeping destructive raids on the local people north of Cardwell.[146][147] Inspector John Marlow, aided by the detachments of sub-Inspectors John Bacey Isley and Ferdinand Tompson, also continued his punitive missions around the Bowen and Proserpine areas.[148] While in the Gulf Country of the colony, officer Wentworth D'Arcy Uhr and his troopers massacred around 60–100 native people in series of raids around Burketown.[149] Near Hughenden sub-Inspector Frederick Murray also conducted several large "dispersals".[150]

Cecil Hill's brother, W.R.O. Hill, was also a Native Police officer and in 1867 he and his troopers slaughtered about ten Aboriginals near the Warrego River[151] In the same year, Native Police under the command Inspector Frederick Wheeler together with a number of armed pastoralists, perpetrated a very large massacre of native people at Goulbulba Hills near Emerald.[152]

Further expansion in the 1870s

A section of Native Police

As the British pastoralists moved further into the north and the west of the colony, so too did Commissioner David Thompson Seymour expand the operations of the Native Police. Not only were the numbers of troopers and officers increased but their weaponry also became more modernised. Long range, large bore Snider rifles gradually replaced the carbines and double-barreled rifles previously used. Thereby, from the early 1870s, what was already a lethal vehicle of colonisation became an even more formidable unit of extermination, especially when considering the fact that their targets were Aboriginal family groups often armed only with spears, waddies and boomerangs.[133]

Far North Queensland & Torres Strait

In 1872, in the far north of the colony sub-Inspectors Robert Arthur Johnstone and Richard Crompton undertook a prolonged sweeping search of Hinchinbrook Island and the surrounding islets.[153]

In that same year, allegations that Johnstone conducted further massacres along the coast north of Cardwell during reprisal raids for the killing of the captain of the shipwrecked Maria vessel was raised in parliament by the Queensland Premier Arthur Hunter Palmer, to which he emphatically denied.[154] Johnstone also prevented a number of Aboriginal people near the Whyandot station from helping shephards lambing.[155] Johnstone and his troopers also committed numerous massacres at various places along the coast following the killing of whites at Green Island[156] and during the 1873 North Queensland exploratory expedition led by George Elphinstone Dalrymple.[157] In the Cumberland Islands, sub-Inspector George Nowlan led his troopers in a dispersal against the Ngaro people living on Whitsunday Island after they hijacked and burnt the Louisa Maria schooner.[158] The Ngaro who survived fled in canoes to the mainland near Mackay and were further pursued by Sgt Graham and his troopers.[159]

Further north at Somerset on the tip of the Cape York Peninsula, officer Frank Jardine, who had previously murdered many Aboriginal people as a drover, led his troopers in massacres against the mainland Yadhaykenu people and the Kaurareg people of the Torres Strait after the crew of a ship were murdered by other people.[160][161][162] In 1875, sub-Inspector H.M. Chester even managed to lead his troops in a number of pillaging raids of native villages along the Fly River as part of Luigi D'Albertis' journey to the uncolonised southern New Guinea region.[163]

At this time the northern goldfields at Palmer River, Cape River, Hodgkinson River and the Normanby River opened up, causing a massive influx of prospectors and miners. Native Police camps were quickly established in these areas to punish unreservedly any Aboriginal resistance. Sub-Inspectors Alexander Douglas-Douglas, Aulaire Morisset, George Townsend, Lionel Tower, Tom Coward and Stanhope O'Connor amongst others, conducted regular "dispersals" throughout the 1870s at these sites. In an 1876 first-hand description of one of these Native Police dispersals, Palmer River prospector Arthur Ashwin writes:

"Just as daylight was breaking we heard volley after volley of rifles. Jack said the black trackers had got on to a mob of wild blacks. We went over the next day and found the niggers camp, they must have been a hundred strong. There were two large fires still alight where the trackers had burnt the dead bodies. We were very lucky the trackers were ahead of us and cleaned this bit of country of the blacks"[164]

A journalist in Cooktown recalled how Douglas' troopers would make notches on the stocks of their rifles for every person they killed in the "nigger raids". One had 25 notches of which nine were added in a week.[165] In an example of another massacre, Stanhope O'Connor and his troopers killed about 30 Aboriginals to the north of Cooktown at Cape Bedford.[166] Very soon after committing this mass-killing, O'Connor and his unit were sent to Victoria to help in the capture of Ned Kelly, the famous bushranger.[167] In the late 1870s, around the Mossman River region, sub-Inspector Robert Little was regularly dispersing groups of native inhabitants.[168]

West and Southwest Queensland

The Etheridge goldfields in the vicinity of Georgetown also were discovered around this time and as in the north-east of the colony, Native Police barracks were soon constructed. In 1871, sub-Inspector Denis McCarthy and his unit shot dead seventeen local Aboriginals who had murdered Mr. Corbett near Gilberton.[169] North of Boulia, sub-Inspector Eglinton shot a large number of Aboriginals following the killing of four drovers.[170] At Bladensburg near Winton at least 100 local tribespeople were shot down by the detachment of sub-Inspector Moran.[171] In 1876, two detachments of Native police under the command of Sub-Inspectors William Armit and Lyndon Poingdestre attacked a large number of Aboriginals displaying "determined resistance" at Creen Creek after they had attacked a telegraph station.[172]

In the southwest of the colony many additional dispersals of Aboriginal people in the 1870s occurred at the hands of the Native Police. After the killings of pastoralists such as Welford, Maloney and Dowling, Native Police based at places like Tambo and Thargomindah went on numerous punitive expeditions, often assisted by stockmen. For example, sub-Inspector Armstrong dispersed a camp in the Cheviot Range,[173] sub-Inspector Gilmour did likewise near the future towns of Betoota[174] and Birdsville.[175] Sub-Inspectors Gough and Kaye led a lengthy mission of dispersals from Bluff Station near Birdsville north to Glengyle Station.[176] Other officers such as Cheeke, Dunne and Stafford led further missions throughout this decade.[177]

In 1876, two officers in the force were charged with murder. In the first case, Sub-Inspector John Carroll stationed at Aramac, shot one of his troopers dead and flogged another after one of them attempted to poison them. He was also charged for chaining up an Aboriginal woman by her legs continuously for a month. All charges were thrown out.[178] In the second case, Inspector Frederick Wheeler was charged after a prolonged and brutal flogging of an Aboriginal man, who later died from peritonitis at the Belyando barracks.[179] Public incidents like these forced the government into a commission of enquiry in regards to ameliorating the condition of Aboriginals. After some initial research, the commission requested a grant of £1600 from parliament to implement reserves for the Indigenous population. Parliament quickly denied these funds and in 1878 the commission was wound up.[180]

Intense conflict 1880–1884

Skirmish with Native Police at Creen Creek

Despite not being willing to fund a small Aboriginal welfare program, the Queensland government did find the extra thousands of pounds required to expand the Native Police to its height of strength in the early 1880s. By 1882 Commissioner Seymour had 184 officers and troopers in this force at his disposal.[181] With this increase of manpower more violence ensued.

The year 1881 in particular had several notable incidents of murder. In February, sub-Inspector George Dyas was speared and clubbed to death by Aboriginals near the isolated town of Croydon.[182] [183] Sub-Inspector Kaye was speared through the heart and killed in a desperate defensive action by an Aboriginal man.[184] Many Indigenous people were killed following this incident.[185] Some fled the shootings by going to another town in Gilberton and sought protection with the normal police there.[186]

Later that same year Mary Watson, the wife of a beche-de-mer fisherman at Lizard Island was attacked by local Aboriginals. A Chinese workman named Ah Leong was killed and Mary, her baby and another workman named Ah Sam escaped in a large iron boiling pot which was quickly improvised into a makeshift raft. It was assumed that the three were later killed by Aboriginals from the McIvor River to the north of Cooktown.[187] Sub-Inspector Hervey Fitzgerald led a series of reprisal raids in which "tenfold vengeance has been exacted".[188] It was later discovered that Mrs Watson, her baby and Ah Sam had drifted onto a nearby island and died of thirst.[189]

In January 1883, near the mining township of Cloncurry, the local Kalkadoon and Maithakari people attacked a Native Police camp which resulted in the death of a Native Police officer. Sub-Inspector Marcus Beresford was also beaten to death and several of his troopers wounded.[190] A massacre perpetrated by the Native Police were afterwards conducted,[191] but in the following year the Kalkadoon were still able to kill the well-known pastoralist James Powell at Calton Hills. In response, sub-Inspector Frederic Urquhart, his troopers tracked down a group of around 150 Kalkadoon.[192] This dispersal came to be known as the conflict of Battle Mountain. Urquhart and his troopers stayed in the area on continuous patrol killing more Aboriginals for a further nine weeks.[193]

The Irvinebank massacre

The Irvinebank massacre of October 1884 is widely regarded as the turning point of the Native Police from which a gradual reduction in the force began. Sub-Inspector William Nichols, who was involved in the earlier Woolgar killings, was stationed with his troopers at the Nigger Creek barracks. He led a patrol to Irvinebank which resulted in two Aboriginal males being captured and shot dead, followed by the slaughter of an old man, two women and child.[194] The government of Samuel Griffith pursued murder charges against Nichols and his troopers. While the seven troopers were kept in prison on remand for some time, the charges against Nichols were quickly thrown out due to a lack of evidence.[195] Nichols was dismissed from the force, and some detachments of Native Police were disbanded and replaced with normal police units. The operations of the Native Police, however, still continued relatively unabated for the rest of the 1880s with the force receiving more modern weaponry in the form of Martini-Henry rifles in 1884.

Examples of the further conflict include reports by sub-Inspector James Lamond, based at the Carl Creek barracks near the Lawn Hill run of Frank Hann, that the Native police shot "over 100 blacks" from 1883 to 1885 on that pastoral lease alone. Frank Hann, his property manager Jack Watson and Frank Shadforth on the neighbouring Lilydale station also shot large numbers of Aboriginals in this region themselves.[196] Hann himself was wounded in a violent encounter on Lawn Hill station with the Aboriginal outlaw, Joe Flick. In this shoot-out, Flick killed Native Police sub-Inspector Alfred Wavell before dying of wounds himself.[197] Near the Batavia River in the extreme far north, sub-Inspector Frederic Urquhart dispersed a large number of Aboriginals following the killing of pastoralist Edmund Watson,[198] with Urquhart being speared in the leg during this operation.[199] In the rainforest areas of far north eastern coast, the dispersals also continued. Naturalist Robert Grant observed a number of massacres by the Native Police during his scientific expedition to the Atherton Tableland region in the late 1880s. He obtained two Aboriginal children after one of these massacres, one of which was a boy who he took back to New South Wales and raised in Scottish tradition. This boy became Douglas Grant, the notable Aboriginal who fought for the British Empire in World War I.[200]

Changing of policy from 1890

By 1890, atrocities by the Native Police were coming under increased scrutiny from members of the public and the media. A.J. Vogan's novel 'Black Police', published in that year, was closely based on incidents that Vogan said he saw or investigated in 1888–1889. The book included stories of massacres committed by the Queensland Native Police in close cooperation with settlers antagonistic to the presence of Aboriginal people on or near their runs.[201] Continued newspaper focus on incidents, an increasingly influential social criticism, and the shifting of the colonial frontier into the Northern Territory and British New Guinea eventually had some effect on changing the Queensland government's policy of "dispersal".

In 1889, two police officials in the Herberton area, Charles Hansen and Andrew Zillman, experimented with allocating rations to displaced Aboriginals instead of shooting them. They found that the trial was a success with an almost complete reduction in the spearing of cattle and settler casualties. Leading officials of the Queensland government, in particular the Colonial Secretary Horace Tozer, opted to expand the funding of the rationing experiment. As a result, the Native Police budget was dramatically reduced with only 45 troopers and a handful of officers being employed in 1895. 1895 also saw David Thompson Seymour, the long serving Queensland Police Commissioner who commanded the exterminating operations of the Native Police for thirty years, replaced with the more moderate William Parry-Okeden. Also in that year, Tozer commissioned Archibald Meston to conduct a thorough research report into the condition of Aboriginals in the colony. Meston recommended the often discussed proposal of segregating Aboriginals from white society and forcibly detaining them on isolated reserves. This report was largely accepted by the government and led to the passing of the Aboriginal Protection Act of 1897. For most Aboriginals in the colony of Queensland, this meant that they faced a reduced likelihood of being shot but also had almost all aspects of their lives controlled by the government. Even though Meston recommended the immediate disbanding of the Native Police, this aspect was rejected with Native Police units continuing to operate out of a number of barracks on the Cape York Peninsula and in the Gulf Country.[202]

Operations from 1890 to 1905

Native Police with constables Bateman and Whiteford at Musgrave barracks around 1898

Despite many Native Police troopers in this period being decommissioned or redeployed as unarmed trackers working with normal police squads and, in addition, a considerable number of mission stations being turned into feeding stations for the local Aboriginal population.[203]

In 1893, a very large group consisting of 20 Native Police troopers led by sub-Inspector Charles Savage, together were sent to investigate the murders of Charles Bruce and Captain Rowe near the Ducie River in the far north. Aboriginals in this area had murdered at least eight men. When the Native police encountered about 300 attacking Aboriginal people, a sharp engagement occurred, killing five troopers.[204] In 1894, the Aboriginal head man responsible for the murder of Bill Baird was captured.[205] After the murder of Donald MacKenzie at Lakefield station in 1896, the Native Police found many of the local tribe dead from arsenic poisoning when they mistook the poison for baking powder.[206]

Drawing by Aboriginal boy Oscar of a Native Police dispersal

Toward the border with the Northern Territory in the Gulf Country, the last operational barracks in this region was at Turn Off Lagoon near to where the modern-day community of Doomadgee is now located. In 1896 after the murder of Cresswell Downs manager, Thomas Perry, this unit shot a large number of Aboriginals in that region. Indiscriminate dispersals also followed the spearing of Harry Shadforth at Wollogorang Station in 1897. Constables Richard Alford and Timothy Lyne were in charge of these troopers at this time. An Aboriginal boy named Oscar who was kidnapped from the Cooktown area by Native Police and brought to work at Rocklands station near Camooweal, made some unique recordings of the operations of the Native Police based at Turn Off Lagoon. From 1895 to 1899, Oscar produced a number of drawings depicting Native Police troopers shooting tribal Aboriginals either as they were running away or as they were tied to trees.[207]

Native Police detachment at Turn Off Lagoon barracks 1898

While travelling near the Wenlock River, Reverend Gilbert White and anthropologist Walter Roth were shown the remains of four local Aboriginal men shot dead by Native Police in a surprise attack.[208] Reports reached Commissioner William Parry-Okeden and a large investigation ensued. The officer in charge, constable John Hoole was acquitted of any wrongdoing but was transferred and soon after forced into retirement.[209]

By 1909, the only functional Native Police barracks remaining was at Coen but this was manned by only several veteran troopers. This barracks finally closed in 1929.[210] Native police still officially had a role in Queensland until at least the 1960s with unarmed troopers being assigned to maintain control in Aboriginal isolation and detention facilities such as the Palm Island facility. Eddie Mabo gave a description of these native police on his visit to Palm Island in 1957.[211]

South Australia

Commissioner Alexander Tolmer formed the South Australian Native Police Force in 1852 at the specific direction of the South Australian Government. Later that year a newspaper reported, "A dozen powerful natives, chiefly of the Moorundee tribe [from Blanchetown, South Australia district on the River Murray], have been selected to be sent to the Port Lincoln district to act as Mounted Police."[212] The little corps, under the command of Mounted Police Corporal John Cusack (1809–1887), sailed for Port Lincoln on the government schooner Yatala on 29 December 1852, for service on Eyre Peninsula. It was confidently expected they would be usefully employed in protection of the settlers in that district.[213]

The Native Police were soon extended, the strength in 1856 being:- Murray District (based at Moorundee and Wellington): 2 inspectors, 2 corporals, 13 constables, 16 horses; Venus Bay: 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, 7 constables, 8 horses; and at Port Augusta: 3 constables and 2 horses. The six officers were all European, while the twenty-three constables were all Aboriginal, all being issued with standard police arms and uniforms.[214]

Both Aboriginal and European offenders were brought to justice by these men, but on the Eyre Peninsula the Aboriginals were largely ineffectual as they were in unfamiliar territory, while on the Murray the majority of the troopers abandoned the force to work on nearby farms and did not return.[215] The force appears to have had a limited role in frontier conflict as much of the violence associated with the British invasion had already passed in the regions in which they were stationed.[216]

In 1857 it was abolished as a distinct corps, although a few Aboriginal constables continued to be employed from time to time at certain remote police stations. Also, Aboriginal trackers were employed as needed, but were not sworn police constables. In 1884 a native police scheme was revived by the South Australia Police in Central Australia (see Northern Territory, below), and the operations of this force were similar to the notorious Queensland and New South Wales corps.

Northern Territory

In 1884, the South Australian Police Commissioner, William John Peterswald established a Native Police Force. Six Aboriginal men were recruited in November 1884. Aged between 17 and 26 years of age, they came from Alice Springs, Charlotte Waters, Undoolya and Macumba. The Native Police became notorious for their violent activities, especially under the command of Constable William Willshire. In 1891, two Aboriginal men were 'shot whilst attempting to escape'. The deaths were noticed and the South Australian Register called for an Enquiry to establish whether or not police had been justified in killing the two Aboriginal men.

Eventually, F. J. Gillen, Telegraph Stationmaster and Justice of the Peace at Alice Springs, received instructions from the Government to investigate the matter and report to the Attorney-General. Gillen found Willshire responsible for ordering the killings. At the conclusion of Gillen's investigation, Willshire was suspended, arrested and charged with murder. He became the first Northern Territory police officer charged with this offence. He was subsequently acquitted.[217]

Nauru

Australian and British forces took command of Nauru from German control in late 1914. The Germans had set up their own Native Police force on the island with the troopers being from New Guinea. These quickly changed allegiance to the British and were utilised maintaining order over the Kanaka and Chinese coolie labourers mining the guano deposits.[218] By the 1920s the troopers were mostly from Tuvalu and the Gilbert Islands with some local men and Maori from New Zealand also being employed. In 1930, the Native Police subdued a riot amongst the Chinese workers which saw one trooper killed and 18 labourers injured.[219] During World War II many troopers remained loyal to the British and conducted espionage operations while Nauru was under Japanese control. After the war, the island and its Native Police returned to being under Anglo-Australian administration.[220]

In 1948, Chinese guano mining workers went on strike over pay and conditions. The Administrator for Nauru, Eddie Ward, imposed a state of emergency with the Native Police and armed volunteers of locals and Australian officials being mobilised. This force, using sub-machine guns and other firearms, opened fire on the Chinese workers killing two and wounding sixteen. Around 50 of the workers were arrested and two of these were bayoneted to death while in custody. The Native Police trooper who bayoneted the prisoners was charged but later acquitted on grounds that the wounds were "accidentally received."[221][222] The governments of the Soviet Union and China made official complaints against Australia at the United Nations over this incident.[223] The Native Police was eventually replaced with a civilian police force once Nauru became self-governing in 1966.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Loos, Noel (2017), Invasion and resistance : Aboriginal-European relations on the North Queensland frontier 1861–1897, Boolarong Press, ISBN 978-1-925522-60-0
  2. ^ Queensland. Parliament. Legislative Assembly. Select Committee on Native Police Force and the Condition of the Aborigines Generally. (1861), Report from the Select Committee on the Native Police Force and the Condition of the Aborigines Generally together with the proceedings of the Committee and minutes of evidence, Fairfax and Belbridge, retrieved 22 July 2017
  3. ^ Fels, Marie Hansen (1988). Good Men and True: The Aboriginal Police of the Port Phillip District 1837–1853.
  4. ^ Skinner, L.E. (1975). Police of the Pastoral Frontier. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.
  5. ^ a b Bottoms, Timothy (2013). Conspiracy of Silence. Allen & Unwin.
  6. ^ a b c d e Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, pp 87–90 People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 ISBN 0-9577728-0-7; Queensland Legislative Assembly Votes & Proceedings 1861 p 386pp, "Report from the Select Committee on the Native Police Force and the condition of the aborigines generally"; Feilberg, Carl Adolf (anonymous): "The Way We Civilise; Black and White; The Native Police: – A series of articles and letters Reprinted from the 'Queenslander'", Brisbane, G and J. Black, Edward Street, December 1880, 57 pages; Richards, Jonathan: The Secret War. A True History of Queensland's Native Police, St Lucia Queensland 2008, 308 pages incl. ill. and appendixes.
  7. ^ Eldershaw, Finney (1854). Australia as it Really Is, in Its Life, Scenery and Adventure. London: Darton & Co.
  8. ^ Connor, John (2002). The Australian Frontier Wars, 1788–1838. Sydney: UNSW Press.
  9. ^ Robert Foster and Amanda Nettelbeck (2007). In the Name of the Law. Wakefield Press.
  10. ^ Pashley, A.R. (2002). A Colonial Pioneer.
  11. ^ "Early Days of Port Stephens". Dungog Chronicle : Durham and Gloucester Advertiser. New South Wales. 30 August 1927. p. 6. Retrieved 30 July 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  12. ^ Kituai, A.I.K. (1998). My Gun, My Brother. University of Hawaii Press.
  13. ^ Pacific islands monthly : PIM, Pacific Publications, 1931, retrieved 30 July 2017
  14. ^ Richards, Jonathan. "Native Police". Queensland Historical Atlas. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
  15. ^ "General Orders". Sydney Gazette. 28 April 1805.
  16. ^ Historical Records of Australia, Series I, VIII, p. 467.
  17. ^ "Postscript". Sydney Gazette. 5 May 1805.
  18. ^ "Sydney". Sydney Gazette. 12 May 1805.
  19. ^ Turbet, Peter (2011). The First Frontier. pp. 163, 268.
  20. ^ "Papers Relating to Colonel and Mrs Emily Morisset". Am34. Appendix A. 1841.
  21. ^ Lowe, David (1994). Forgotten Rebels. pp. 10–11.
  22. ^ Batman, John., John Batmans diary from March 3rd 1830, retrieved 30 July 2017
  23. ^ Bigge, J.T. (1822). The State of the Colony of NSW. 1. p. 117.
  24. ^ "Early Days of Port Stephens". Dungog Chronicle : Durham and Gloucester Advertiser. New South Wales. 12 November 1926. p. 3. Retrieved 27 July 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  25. ^ "A Runaway's Fate". Dungog Chronicle : Durham and Gloucester Advertiser. New South Wales. 26 November 1926. p. 6. Retrieved 27 July 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  26. ^ In the Service of the Company: Letters of Sir Edward Parry. Vol 2. ANU Press. 2003. pp. 196–197.
  27. ^ Accounts and Papers, Correspondence relative to Emigration, NSW. Vol 6. 1842. pp. 103–104.
  28. ^ Accounts and Papers: Correspondence relative to emigration, NSW, Vol 6. 1842. p. 86.
  29. ^ O'Sullivan, John (1979). Mounted Police in NSW. Rigby.
  30. ^ "Proposal for the regulations for the formation of an Aboriginal Police Corps". Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  31. ^ a b Public Records Office Victoria, Dana's Native Police Corps (1842–1853) – Tracking the Native Police (Public Record Office Victoria) Archived 1 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 2 November 2008
  32. ^ Shirley W. Wiencke, When the Wattles Bloom Again: The Life and Times of William Barak, Last Chief of the Yarra Yarra Tribe, Published by S.W. Wiencke, 1984, ISBN 0-9590549-0-1, ISBN 978-0-9590549-0-3
  33. ^ a b c d Fels, M. H. (1986). "Good Men and True. 1986 PhD Thesis". Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  34. ^ Public Records Office Victoria, Large Variety of Duties of the Native Police – Tracking the Native Police (Public Record Office Victoria) Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 2 November 2008
  35. ^ Public Records Office Victoria, The disbanding of the Native Police – Tracking the Native Police (Public Record Office Victoria) Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 November 2008
  36. ^ Clark, Ian (1995). Scars in the Landscape. ISBN 9780855755959. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  37. ^ Public Records Office Victoria, Western District Clashes – Tracking the Native Police (Public Record Office Victoria) Archived 27 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2 November 2008
  38. ^ Public Records Office Victoria, Western District Clashes Imposing Peace – Tracking the Native Police (Public Record Office Victoria) Archived 16 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2 November 2008
  39. ^ Clark, Ian (1995). Scars in the Landscape.
  40. ^ Tolmer, Alexander (1882). Reminiscences, Vol. II. [Adelaide, Libraries Board of South Australia. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  41. ^ Fels, M.H. (1986). "Good Men and True. 1986 PhD thesis". Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  42. ^ Beveridge, Peter (1889). The Aborigines of Victoria and Riverina. M.L. Hutchinson, Melbourne. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  43. ^ "MORE AGGRESSIONS BY THE BLACKS". The Sydney Morning Herald. XVI (1979). 19 September 1843. p. 4. Retrieved 25 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  44. ^ Public Records Office Victoria, Gippsland Clashes – Tracking the Native Police (Public Record Office Victoria) Archived 4 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2 November 2008
  45. ^ Fels, M.H. (1986). "Good Men and True. 1986 PhD thesis": 177–179. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  46. ^ Pashley, A. R. (2002). A Colonial Pioneer: The Life and Times of John Nicol Drummond. Educant.
  47. ^ "BLAZING THE TRAIL". The West Australian. XLV (8, 576). Western Australia. 14 December 1929. p. 5. Retrieved 2 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  48. ^ "POLICE ARRESTED". The Queenslander (9). 9 June 1927. p. 36. Retrieved 2 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  49. ^ "No. 27. " An Act further to restrain the unauthorised " occupation of Crown Lands, and to provide " the means of defraying the expense of a "Border Police."". New South Wales Government Gazette (405). 6 April 1839. p. 393. Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  50. ^ Copland, Mark. "The Native Police at Callandoon, A Blueprint for Forced Assimilation?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  51. ^ "No. LII. An Act for applying certain sums arising from the Revenue receivable in New South Wales, to the service thereof, for the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-nine; and for further appropriating the said Revenue. [Assented to, 16th June, 1848.]". New South Wales Government Gazette (68). 27 June 1848. p. 26 (VICTORIAE REGINAE). Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  52. ^ "COLONIAL EXTRACTS". The Moreton Bay Courier. III (154). Queensland. 26 May 1849. p. 4. Retrieved 8 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  53. ^ "No. 2". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXVII (4081). 15 June 1850. p. 3. Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  54. ^ "Letters Received Colonial Secretary from Frederick Walker" (PDF). State Library of Queensland. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  55. ^ a b Telfer, William; Milliss, Roger, 1934– (1980), The Wallabadah manuscript : the early history of the northern districts of New South Wales : recollections of the early days, New South Wales University Press, ISBN 978-0-86840-168-3CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  56. ^ "NATIVE POLICE". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXII (4708). 16 June 1852. p. 1 (Supplement to the Sydney Morning Herald). Retrieved 10 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  57. ^ L. E. Skinner, pp28-33 Police of the Pastoral Frontier. Native Police 1849–59, University of Queensland Press, 1975 ISBN 0-7022-0977-5
  58. ^ "EDWARD'S RIVER". The Melbourne Daily News. XIII (7336). Victoria, Australia. 15 August 1850. p. 2. Retrieved 10 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  59. ^ "ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXIX (4175). 3 October 1850. p. 7. Retrieved 10 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  60. ^ a b Skinner, L.E. (1975). Police of the Pastoral Frontier. St Lucia: UQP. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  61. ^ "To the Editor of the Moreton Bay Courier". The Moreton Bay Courier. VII (327). Queensland, Australia. 18 September 1852. p. 2. Retrieved 9 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  62. ^ Skinner, L.E. (1975). Police of the Pastoral Frontier. St Lucia: UQP. p. 64.
  63. ^ "PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXVIII (6057). 4 November 1857. p. 2. Retrieved 10 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  64. ^ Skinner, L.E. (1975). Police of the Pastoral Frontier. St Lucia: UQP.
  65. ^ Collins, Patrick (2002). Goodbye Bussamarai. St Lucia: UQP.
  66. ^ "WIDE BAY THE BURNETT DISTRICT". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXIV (4987). 11 May 1853. p. 2 (Supplement to the SMH). Retrieved 10 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  67. ^ "Sydney News". The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser. XI (934). New South Wales, Australia. 15 June 1853. p. 4. Retrieved 10 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  68. ^ "PORT CURTIS". Empire (908). New South Wales. 8 December 1853. p. 8. Retrieved 11 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  69. ^ "(To The Editor's of the Freeman's Journal.)". Freeman's Journal. III (112). New South Wales. 12 August 1852. p. 9. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  70. ^ "WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7". Empire (830). New South Wales. 8 September 1853. p. 2. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  71. ^ "LOWER MURRUMBIDGEE". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXVIII (5855). 10 March 1857. p. 5. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  72. ^ "NEW SOUTH WALES". The Mercury. X (1467). Tasmania. 14 August 1865. p. 2. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  73. ^ "COUNCIL OF CRESWICKSHIRE". The Star. IX (211). Ballarat, Victoria. 3 September 1864. p. 4. Retrieved 28 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  74. ^ "Correspondence from Frederick Walker 1853" (PDF). State Library of Queensland. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  75. ^ Medcalf, Rory (1993), "Rivers of blood : massacres of the Northern Rivers Aborigines and their resistance to the white occupation 1838–1870", The Northern Star (2nd ed.), Lismore, archived from the original on 25 July 2018, retrieved 25 July 2018
  76. ^ "BLACKS AND EARLY DWELLERS". Clarence and Richmond Examiner. New South Wales. 3 November 1914. p. 6. Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  77. ^ "Seventy-Five Years on the Richmond". Casino and Kyogle Courier and North Coast Advertiser. 20 (59). New South Wales. 7 October 1922. p. 3. Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  78. ^ "1858 Report from the select committee on murders by the aborigines on the Dawson River". Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  79. ^ "CLARENCE AND RICHMOND DISTRICT". The Courier. XVIII (1688). Brisbane. 11 July 1863. p. 3. Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  80. ^ "Correspondence from Frederick Walker 1854" (PDF). State Library of Queensland. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  81. ^ "To the Editors of the Sydney Morning Herald". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXIII (4806). 8 October 1852. p. 3. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  82. ^ "History of Macleay And Early Pioneers". Macleay Argus (9712). New South Wales. 1 September 1950. p. 3. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  83. ^ "Family Notices". The Sydney Morning Herald (13, 941). 4 December 1882. p. 1. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  84. ^ "KEMPSEY". Empire (3041). New South Wales. 4 July 1861. p. 8. Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  85. ^ "MACLEAY RIVER". The Sydney Morning Herald. XL (6610). 15 August 1859. p. 2. Retrieved 4 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  86. ^ "THE MACLEAY RIVER BLACKS". The Sydney Morning Herald. XLI (6839). 9 May 1860. p. 12. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  87. ^ "A Week on the Macleay". The Port Macquarie News and Hastings River Advocate. New South Wales. 28 April 1928. p. 6. Retrieved 8 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  88. ^ "Peeps into the Past". The Port Macquarie News and Hastings River Advocate. New South Wales. 14 July 1928. p. 6. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  89. ^ a b "The Days of Yore". The Port Macquarie News and Hastings River Advocate. New South Wales. 28 July 1928. p. 6. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  90. ^ "UPPER MACLEAY". The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser. XXI (2559). New South Wales. 11 October 1864. p. 3. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  91. ^ "Kempsey Shire Heritage Study" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  92. ^ "A DOUBLE MURDER MYSTERY". Queanbeyan Age. New South Wales. 19 February 1902. p. 2. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  93. ^ "THE TAYLOR'S ARM SKELETONS". Macleay Argus (1920). New South Wales. 22 March 1902. p. 9. Retrieved 6 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  94. ^ "NAVIGATION OF THE MURRAY". South Australian Register. XVII (2205). 10 October 1853. p. 3. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  95. ^ "LOWER DARLING". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXV (5285). 4 May 1854. p. 5. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  96. ^ "NAVIGATION OF THE MURRAY". South Australian Register. XVII (2259). 12 December 1853. p. 3. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  97. ^ "NEW SOUTH WALES". The Moreton Bay Courier. XII (590). Queensland. 1 August 1857. p. 3. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  98. ^ "No title". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXVIII (5934). 13 June 1857. p. 4. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  99. ^ "LOWER MURRUMBIDGEE". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXIX (6141). 10 February 1858. p. 11. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  100. ^ "LOWER MURRUMBIDGEE". The Sydney Morning Herald. XXXIX (6152). 23 February 1858. p. 3. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  101. ^ "REPORT ON THE ABORIGINES OF THE MURRAY AND LAKE DISTRICTS". South Australian Register. XXIII (3909). 18 April 1859. p. 5. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  102. ^ "GOLD ESCORT DAYS". The Register. XCIII (26, 972). Adelaide. 26 January 1928. p. 10. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  103. ^ "REVIEW". South Australian Register. XXIII (3839). 26 January 1859. p. 2. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  104. ^ "CAPTAIN CRAWFORD'S EXPEDITION". South Australian Register. XXIII (4109). 14 December 1859. p. 2. Retrieved 30 August 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  105. ^ Hill, W.R.O. (1907). Forty-Five Years Experiences in North Queensland. Brisbane: H. Pole & Co.
  106. ^ "BRISBANE". The North Australian, Ipswich and General Advertiser. I (15). Queensland. 8 January 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 11 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  107. ^ "Domestic Intelligence". The Moreton Bay Courier. X (503). Queensland. 29 September 1855. p. 2. Retrieved 11 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  108. ^ a b c d e Skinner, L. E. (1975). Police of the Pastoral Frontier.
  109. ^ "ROCKHAMPTON". The Capricornian. 8 (52). Queensland. 30 December 1882. p. 5 (The Capricornian ILLUSTRATED CHRISTMAS SUPPLEMENT 1882.). Retrieved 6 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  110. ^ "ROCKHAMPTON IN THE EARLY DAYS". The Capricornian. 29 (23). Queensland. 6 June 1903. p. 9. Retrieved 6 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  111. ^ "OUTRAGE BY DISCHARGED NATIVE POLICEMEN". Portland Guardian and Normanby General Advertiser. XVI (1205). Victoria. 28 July 1856. p. 3 (EVENING.). Retrieved 12 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  112. ^ "THE NATIVE POLICE". The North Australian, Ipswich and General Advertiser. I (26). Queensland. 25 March 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 12 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  113. ^ "GAYNDAH". The Moreton Bay Courier. XII (630). Queensland. 6 March 1858. p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  114. ^ "JUANDAH TO HORNET BANK". The Australasian. CXL (4, 541) (METROPOLITAN ed.). Victoria. 18 January 1936. p. 4. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  115. ^ NSW Legislative Assembly. "1858 Report from the Select Committee on the Murders by the Aborigines on the Dawson River". Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  116. ^ "THE NATIVE POLICE". The North Australian, Ipswich and General Advertiser. VI (377). Queensland. 9 August 1861. p. 3. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  117. ^ The Way We Civilize editorials and articles authored and edited by Carl Feilberg and printed in the Brisbane Courier (and its weekly The Queenslander) between March and December 1880 and in the form of a pamphlet. see also L. E. Skinner, pp27 Police of the Pastoral Frontier. Native Police 1849–59, University of Queensland Press, 1975 ISBN 0-7022-0977-5; Richards, Jonathan: The Secret War; Ørsted-Jensen, Robert: Frontier History Revisited and Bottoms, Timothy: Conspiracy of Silence, Allan & Unwin Sydney 2013.
  118. ^ "(Untitled)". The Moreton Bay Courier. XIV (845). Queensland. 27 March 1860. p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  119. ^ "SHOOTING OF BLACKS AT FASSIFERN". The North Australian, Ipswich And General Advertiser. Queensland, Australia. 19 February 1861. p. 4. Retrieved 7 June 2020 – via Trove.
  120. ^ Queensland. Parliament. Legislative Assembly. Select Committee on Native Police Force and the Condition of the Aborigines Generally. (1861), Report from the Select Committee on the Native Police Force and the Condition of the Aborigines Generally together with the proceedings of the Committee and minutes of evidence, Fairfax and Belbridge, retrieved 17 September 2017
  121. ^ "The Moreton Bay Courier". The Moreton Bay Courier. XII (644). Queensland. 24 April 1858. p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  122. ^ "THE NORTH AUSTRALIAN. IPSWICH, TUESDAY, JUNE 29, 1858". The North Australian, Ipswich And General Advertiser. III (144). Queensland. 29 June 1858. p. 3. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  123. ^ "CORONER'S INQUEST". The North Australian, Ipswich and General Advertiser. VI (313). Queensland. 28 December 1860. p. 3. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  124. ^ "THE NATIVE POLICE". Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay And Burnett Advertiser. I (20). Queensland. 4 April 1861. p. 4. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  125. ^ "THE NATIVE POLICE". The Courier. XV (1039). Brisbane. 4 June 1861. p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  126. ^ "MARYBOROUGH". The Moreton Bay Courier. XIV (830). Queensland. 21 February 1860. p. 4. Retrieved 17 September 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
  127. ^ Reid, Gordon (1982). A Nest of Hornets. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. pp. 129–134.
  128. ^ "THE LATE MASSACRE OP BLACKS AT THE CABULTURE". The Courier (Brisbane). XVII (1453). Queensland, Australia. 4 October 1862. p. 2. Retrieved 24 March 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  129. ^ "INTERCOLONIAL". Freeman's Journal. XII (787). New South Wales, Australia. 30 November 1861. p. 3. Retrieved 10 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  130. ^ "PORT DENISON". The Courier (Brisbane). XVI (1208). Queensland, Australia. 23 December 1861. p. 3. Retrieved 24 March 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  131. ^ "LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY". The Courier (Brisbane). XVII (1368). Queensland, Australia. 27 June 1862. p. 2. Retrieved 24 March 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  132. ^ "FIRST REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF POLICE". Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald And General Advertiser. IV (481). Queensland, Australia. 29 June 1865. p. 4. Retrieved 25 March 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  133. ^ a b Orsted-Jensen, Robert (2011). Frontier History Revisited. Brisbane: Lux Mundi. pp. 180–181.
  134. ^ Kennedy, E. B. (Edward B.) (1902), The black police of Queensland : reminiscences of official work and personal adventures in the early days of the colony, J. Murray, retrieved 9 December 2018
  135. ^ "KENNEDY DISTRICT". The Courier (Brisbane). XVII (1585). Queensland, Australia. 12 March 1863. p. 3. Retrieved 9 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  136. ^ "BOWEN". Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay And Burnett Advertiser. IV (214). Queensland, Australia. 9 November 1864. p. 2. Retrieved 9 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  137. ^ "JOURNAL OF AN EXPEDITION TO BUCKINGHAM BAY". Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay And Burnett Advertiser. IV (179). Queensland, Australia. 21 April 1864. p. 1 (Maryborough Chronicle, SUPPLEMENT). Retrieved 10 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  138. ^ "MASSACRE OF THE BLACKS IN QUEENSLAND". Empire (4, 308). New South Wales, Australia. 2 August 1865. p. 8. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  139. ^ "CLERMONT". Rockhampton Bulletin And Central Queensland Advertiser (37[?]). Queensland, Australia. 20 December 1864. p. 1 (Supplement to the Rockhampton Bulletin). Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  140. ^ Fetherstonhaugh, Cuthbert (1917). After Many Days. Melbourne: E. W. Cole. pp. 272–274.
  141. ^ "MELBOURNE". Rockhampton Bulletin And Central Queensland Advertiser (469). Queensland, Australia. 18 July 1865. p. 2. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  142. ^ "THE BLACK POLICE". Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald And General Advertiser. VI (801). Queensland, Australia. 20 July 1867. p. 3. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  143. ^ "ROCKHAMPTON". Mackay Mercury And South Kennedy Advertiser ([?]). Queensland, Australia. 20 March 1867. p. 2. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  144. ^ "No title". Mackay Mercury And South Kennedy Advertiser (56). Queensland, Australia. 24 April 1867. p. 2. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  145. ^ "MACKAY". Rockhampton Bulletin And Central Queensland Advertiser (1005). Queensland, Australia. 26 December 1868. p. 2. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  146. ^ Poignant, Roslyn (2004), Professional savages : captive lives and western spectacle, University of New South Wales Press, ISBN 978-0-86840-743-2
  147. ^ "ROCKINGHAM BAY". Rockhampton Bulletin And Central Queensland Advertiser (426). Queensland, Australia. 8 April 1865. p. 3. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  148. ^ "BOWEN". The Queenslander. I (23). Queensland, Australia. 7 July 1866. p. 8. Retrieved 13 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  149. ^ "TAROOM". The Brisbane Courier. XXII (3, 337). Queensland, Australia. 9 June 1868. p. 3. Retrieved 14 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  150. ^ "PORT DENISON". Rockhampton Bulletin And Central Queensland Advertiser (727). Queensland, Australia. 14 March 1867. p. 2. Retrieved 14 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  151. ^ "THE NATIVE POLICE". The Brisbane Courier. XXII (3, 162). Queensland, Australia. 29 November 1867. p. 3. Retrieved 15 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  152. ^ "ST. HELENS". Morning Bulletin. LXI (10, [?]47). Queensland, Australia. 4 August 1899. p. 7. Retrieved 15 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  153. ^ "No title". Rockhampton Bulletin (1502). Queensland, Australia. 9 March 1872. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  154. ^ "LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY". The Queenslander. VII (333). Queensland, Australia. 22 June 1872. p. 9. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  155. ^ "CRUELTY TO BLACKS". The Brisbane Courier. XXVII (4, 638). Queensland, Australia. 10 August 1872. p. 5. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  156. ^ Johnstone, Robert Arthur; Johnstone-Need, J. W. (James Walter), 1906– (1984), Spinifex and wattle : reminiscences of pioneering in North Queensland, J.W. Johnstone-Need, ISBN 978-0-9590470-0-4CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  157. ^ Dalrymple, George Elphinstone. "Narrative of the North East Expedition". Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  158. ^ "(From the Courier)". The Daily Northern Argus (2895). Queensland, Australia. 21 September 1878. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  159. ^ "Hunting up Aboriginal Desperadoes". Evening News (3473). New South Wales, Australia. 2 September 1878. p. 2. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  160. ^ Nonie Sharp (2000), Footprints Along the Cape York Sand BeachesPaperback, Aboriginal Studies Pr, ISBN 978-0-85575-230-9
  161. ^ "Hammond". Queensland Government. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  162. ^ "Thursday Island (Waiben)". Queensland Government. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  163. ^ D'Albertis, Luigi (1880). New Guinea: what I did and what I saw. Vol II. London: Sampson Low. pp. 1–40.
  164. ^ Ashwin, Arthur C. (Arthur Cranbrook); Bridge, Peter J. (Peter John), 1943– (2002), Gold to grass : the reminiscences of Arthur C. Ashwin, 1850–1930, prospector and pastoralist, Hesperian Press, ISBN 978-0-85905-284-9CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  165. ^ "THE QUEENSLAND NATIVE POLICE". The Telegraph (2, 013). Queensland, Australia. 1 April 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 21 September 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  166. ^ "MASSACRE OF BLACKS". Geelong Advertiser (9, 875). Victoria, Australia. 10 March 1879. p. 4. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  167. ^ "THE KELLY GANG". Avoca Mail (1, 156). Victoria, Australia. 7 March 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  168. ^ "NORTHERN MAIL NEWS". The Capricornian. 5 (24). Queensland, Australia. 14 June 1879. p. 15. Retrieved 8 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  169. ^ "Country News, by Mail". The Queenslander. VI (284). Queensland, Australia. 15 July 1871. p. 10. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  170. ^ Wallis, Lynley. "How unearthing Queensland's 'native police' camps gives us a window onto colonial violence". The Conversation, Australia. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  171. ^ Booth, Andrea. "What are the frontier wars?". NITV. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
  172. ^ "A SKIRMISH WITH ABORIGINES AT CREEN CREEK, QUEENSLAND". . II (25). South Australia. 1 November 1876. p. 6. Retrieved 8 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  173. ^ "Old Barces Days". The World's News (245). New South Wales, Australia. 25 August 1906. p. 10. Retrieved 17 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  174. ^ "THE STORY OF JOHN CONRICK, PIONEER". The News. I (116). South Australia. 5 December 1923. p. 11 (HOME EDITION). Retrieved 17 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  175. ^ "(ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.) THE STORY OF JOHN CONRICK, PIONEER". The News. I (12). South Australia. 6 August 1923. p. 10 (HOME EDITION). Retrieved 17 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  176. ^ "Native Police Duty in the North". The Brisbane Courier. XXXIII (3, 747). Queensland, Australia. 22 May 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 17 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  177. ^ Bottoms, Timothy (Timothy David Reis); Evans, Raymond, 1944–, (author.) (2013), Conspiracy of silence : Queensland's frontier killing-times (1st ed.), Allen & Unwin, ISBN 978-1-74331-382-4CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  178. ^ "Serious Changes against an ex-Native Police Officer". The Queenslander. XI (60). Queensland, Australia. 7 October 1876. p. 32. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  179. ^ "Charge of Murder against Inspector Wheeler, of the Native Police". Toowoomba Chronicle And Darling Downs General Advertiser (1104). Queensland, Australia. 29 April 1876. p. 3. Retrieved 16 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  180. ^ "The Aboriginal Commission". The Brisbane Courier. XXXIV (4, 072). Queensland, Australia. 9 June 1880. p. 3. Retrieved 17 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  181. ^ "The Police Department". Toowoomba Chronicle And Darling Downs General Advertiser (3081). Queensland, Australia. 6 October 1883. p. 2. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  182. ^ "QUEENSLAND". Adelaide Observer. XXXVIII (2054). South Australia. 12 February 1881. p. 8. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  183. ^ "Cloncurry". The Brisbane Courier. XXXVI (7, 345). Queensland, Australia. 27 July 1881. p. 5. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  184. ^ "The Murder of Sub-inspector Kaye". The Brisbane Courier. XXXVI (7, 417). Queensland, Australia. 19 October 1881. p. 3. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  185. ^ Wallis, Lynley. "Woolgar Massacre". Wallis Heritage Consulting. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  186. ^ Hillier, Alan J (1 January 1994), The native police under scrutiny, Royal Historical Society of Queensland, archived from the original on 18 December 2018, retrieved 18 December 2018
  187. ^ "THE LIZARD ISLAND MASSACRE". The Australasian. XXXI (816). Victoria, Australia. 19 November 1881. p. 24. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  188. ^ "THE LIZARD ISLAND TRAGEDY". The Sydney Morning Herald (13, 641). New South Wales, Australia. 19 December 1881. p. 8. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  189. ^ "The Lizard Island Tragedy". Northern Territory Times And Gazette. VII (437). Northern Territory, Australia. 25 February 1882. p. 3. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  190. ^ "The Murder of Mr. Beresford". The Queenslander. XXIII (393). Queensland, Australia. 7 April 1883. p. 548. Retrieved 30 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  191. ^ "WHOLESALE MASSACRE OF BLACKS". Glen Innes Examiner And General Advertiser. XII (611). New South Wales, Australia. 9 September 1884. p. 3. Retrieved 25 November 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  192. ^ "MR. POWELL'S MURDER". The Capricornian. 10 (43). Queensland, Australia. 25 October 1884. p. 22. Retrieved 30 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  193. ^ Fysh, Hudson, Sir (1950), Taming the north (Rev. and enl. ed.), Angus and Robertson, ISBN 978-0-207-12112-8CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  194. ^ "ALLEGED SLAUGHTER OF ABORIGINES". The Brisbane Courier. XXXIX (8, 377). Queensland, Australia. 14 November 1884. p. 5. Retrieved 30 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  195. ^ "The Irvinebank Murders". The Queenslander. XXVII (489). Queensland, Australia. 7 February 1885. p. 227. Retrieved 30 December 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  196. ^ Roberts, Tony; Roberts, Tony (Anthony John), 1945– (2005), Frontier justice : a history of the Gulf country to 1900, University of Queensland Press, ISBN 978-0-7022-3361-6CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  197. ^ "JOE FLICK AT BAY". The Capricornian. 15 (45). Queensland, Australia. 9 November 1889. p. 27. Retrieved 7 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  198. ^ "QUEENSLAND NEWS". Morning Bulletin. XLII (8039). Queensland, Australia. 20 May 1889. p. 6. Retrieved 6 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  199. ^ "NORTHERN MAIL NEWS". Morning Bulletin. XLII (8089). Queensland, Australia. 19 July 1889. p. 6. Retrieved 6 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  200. ^ "THE END of a HUMAN EXPERIMENT". Smith's Weekly. XIII (17). New South Wales, Australia. 6 June 1931. p. 17. Retrieved 6 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  201. ^ Vogan, A. J. (Arthur James); Vogan, A.J. (Arthur James), 1859–1948. Slave map of modern Australia (1890), The black police : a story of modern Australia, Hutchinson, archived from the original on 6 January 2019, retrieved 6 January 2019CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  202. ^ Loos, Noel (2017), Invasion and resistance : Aboriginal-European relations on the North Queensland frontier 1861–1897, Boolarong Press, ISBN 978-1-925522-60-0
  203. ^ "HOW THE BLACKS ARE FED". The North Queensland Register. VII (38). Queensland, Australia. 13 October 1897. p. 19. Retrieved 18 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  204. ^ "Outrage by Blacks". Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald And General Advertiser. XXXV (5064). Queensland, Australia. 16 December 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 18 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  205. ^ "Murder of Prospectors". The Telegraph (6757). Queensland, Australia. 13 June 1894. p. 4. Retrieved 18 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  206. ^ "The Murder of Donald Mackenzie". Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald And General Advertiser. XXXVI (5446). Queensland, Australia. 4 June 1896. p. 5. Retrieved 18 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  207. ^ Roberts, Tony; Roberts, Tony (Anthony John), 1945– (2005), Frontier justice : a history of the Gulf country to 1900, University of Queensland Press, ISBN 978-0-7022-3361-6CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  208. ^ White, Gilbert (1918). Thirty Years in Tropical Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
  209. ^ "Aboriginals Shot". The Telegraph (9, 317). Queensland, Australia. 30 September 1902. p. 7. Retrieved 19 January 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  210. ^ Richards, Jonathan (2005), "A Question of Necessity" : The Native Police in Queensland, Griffith University, retrieved 19 January 2019
  211. ^ Loos, Noel; Mabo, Edward, 1936–1992 (1996), Edward Koiki Mabo : his life and struggle for land rights, University of Queensland Press, ISBN 978-0-7022-2905-3CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  212. ^ "THE FIRE IN GRENFELL-STREET". South Australian Register. South Australia. 2 December 1852. p. 3. Retrieved 23 February 2020 – via Trove.
  213. ^ "No title". South Australian Register. South Australia. 30 December 1852. p. 2. Retrieved 23 February 2020 – via Trove.
  214. ^ "NO. 5.— STRENGTH OF THE NATIVE POLICE FORCE OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA ON THE 31ST DECEMBER. 1855". South Australian Register. South Australia. 2 February 1856. p. 3. Retrieved 23 February 2020 – via Trove.
  215. ^ Clyne, R. E., Colonial Blue, p120-121.
  216. ^ Foster, Robert; Nettelbeck, Amanda (2012), Out of the silence : the history and memory of South Australia's frontier wars, Wakefield Press, ISBN 978-1-74305-039-2
  217. ^ Refer to Wilson, W.R. A Force Apart, PhD Thesis, NT University 2000 and The Establishment of, and Operations by The Northern Territory Native Police 1884–1891, Journal of NT History, No 7, 1996.
  218. ^ "NAURU". The Sydney Morning Herald. New South Wales, Australia. 21 January 1915. p. 8. Retrieved 17 February 2020 – via Trove.
  219. ^ "NAURU RIOT". The Brisbane Courier. Queensland, Australia. 10 May 1930. p. 10. Retrieved 17 February 2020 – via Trove.
  220. ^ "Two Heroes of Nauru". The Daily News. Western Australia. 22 September 1945. p. 11 (HOME EDITION). Retrieved 17 February 2020 – via Trove.
  221. ^ "NAURU RIOT". Townsville Daily Bulletin. Queensland, Australia. 2 July 1949. p. 1. Retrieved 17 February 2020 – via Trove.
  222. ^ "Chinese Lose Nauru and Manus Cases", Pacific Islands Monthly, [Sydney: Pacific Publications (Vol. XIX, No. 6 ( 1 Jan. 1949)), 1949, nla.obj-330063007, retrieved 17 February 2020 – via Trove
  223. ^ "Nauru, New Guinea". The Courier-mail. Queensland, Australia. 5 October 1949. p. 4. Retrieved 17 February 2020 – via Trove.

References

On the Native Police Corps of Victoria (1842–1853)

  • Fels, Marie Hansen: GOOD MEN AND TRUE: THE ABORIGINAL POLICE OF THE PORT PHIL-LIP DISTRICT 1837–1853, Melbourne 1988, 308 pages.

On the Native Police in South Australia (Northern Territory) (1884–1891)

  • Amanda Nettelbeck & Robert Foster: IN THE NAME OF THE LAW: William Willshire and the policing of the Australian Frontier, Kent Town SA 2007, 227 pages, illustrated ISBN 978-1-86254-748-3

On Queensland's Native Police Force (1848–1897):

  • Bottoms, Timothy: Conspiracy of Silence, Allan & Unwin Sydney 2013, 258 pages, ill.
  • Dillon, Paul: "FREDERICK WALKER COMMANDANT OF THE NATIVE POLICE", ISBN 9781925501957, Connor Court Publishing, Brisbane, 2018,476 pages.
  • Evans, Raymond in Evans, Saunders, & Cronin: RACE RELATIONS IN COLONIAL QUEENSLAND: A HISTORY OF EXCLUSION, EXPLOITATION AND EXTERMINATION, third edition Brisbane 1993 (first edition publ. Sydney, 1975), 456 pages, ill.
  • Evans, Raymond: ACROSS THE QUEENSLAND FRONTIER In Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience, eds Bain Attwood and S.G. Foster. National Museum of Australia, Canberra, 2003, pp. 63–75 'Frontier Conflict' Dec. 2001 14 pages.
  • Evans, Raymond: THE COUNTRY HAS ANOTHER PAST: QUEENSLAND AND THE HISTORY WARS, chapter in 'Passionate Histories: Myth, memory and Indigenous Australia' Aboriginal History Monograph 21, September 2010. Edited by Frances Peters-Little, Ann Curthoys and John Docker.
  • Feilberg, Carl: THE WAY WE CIVILISE (pamphlet, see external links below)
  • Ørsted-Jensen, Robert: FRONTIER HISTORY REVISITED – QUEENSLAND AND THE 'HISTORY WAR', Brisbane. ISBN 9781466386822
  • Richards, Jonathan: THE SECRET WAR. A TRUE HISTORY OF QUEENSLAND'S NATIVE POLICE, St Lucia Queensland 2008, 308 pages
  • Skinner, Leslie Edward: POLICE OF THE PASTORAL FRONTIER – NATIVE POLICE, 1849–1859, Brisbane, St Lucia, 1975, 455 pages.
  • Vogan, Arthur James: THE BLACK POLICE: A STORY OF MODERN AUSTRALIA, London, Hutchinson & Co., 1890, 392 pages.
  • Wright, Judith Arundell: THE CRY FOR THE DEAD, Melbourne 1981, 303 pages.

Fictional depiction

  • Howarth, Paul: ONLY KILLERS AND THIEVES, London,2008, ISBN 978-1-91159-003-3

External links