Bridgewater

Bridgewater, South Australia, Australia
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  • Adelaide city centre

    Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as “The City” or “Town” to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide (which also includes North Adelaide and the Park Lands). The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city “square mile”, bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and the section of the parklands south of the River Torrens which separates the built up part of the city from the surrounding suburbs and North Adelaide.

    The locality is home to the Parliament of South Australia and many key state government offices. Due to the construction of many new apartments in the city, the population has grown over ten years from 10,229 (2006 census)[4] to 15,115 (2016 census).[1]

    History

    Currie Street looking east, circa 1925

    Before the European settlement of South Australia, the Adelaide Plains, on which Adelaide was built, were home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians. The colony of South Australia was established in 1836 at Glenelg, and the city itself established in 1837. The location and layout of the city is accredited to Colonel William Light (1786–1839), in a plan known as Light’s Vision. The area where the Adelaide city centre now exists was once known as “Tarndanya“,[5] which translates as “male red kangaroo rock” in Aboriginal, an area along the south bank of what is now known as the River Torrens, which flows through Adelaide.

    Adelaide in 1935

    Kaurna numbers were significantly reduced by at least two widespread epidemics of smallpox which preceded European settlement, having been transported downstream along the Murray River. When European settlers arrived in 1836, estimates of the Kaurna population ranged from 300 to 1000 people.[citation needed]
    British Captain Matthew Flinders, along with French Captain Nicolas Baudin, charted the southeast coast of Australia, where Adelaide is located. Flinders named Mount Lofty in 1802 but provided little information on Adelaide itself.

    Charles Sturt later explored the Murray and wrote a favourable reflection on what he saw. Colonel William Light is credited largely with settling and laying out the Adelaide region, which included a grid plan of Adelaide’s streets. Adelaide was not as badly affected by the 1860s economic depression in Australia as other gold rush cities like Sydney and Melbourne, allowing it to prosper. Historian F.W. Crowley noted that the city was full of elite upper-class citizens which provided a stark contrast to the grinding poverty of the labour areas and slums outside the inner city ring. Due to its historic puritan wealth during the 20th century, the city retains a notable portion of Victorian architecture.

    Geography

    Built environment

    Adelaide city centre, North Adelaide and the Park Lands

    Adelaide is separated from its greater metropolitan area by a ring of public parklands on all sides. The so-called “square mile” within the park lands is defined by a small area of high rise office and apartment buildings in the centre north, around King William Street, which runs north-to-south through the centre. Surrounding this central business district are a large number of medium to low density apartments, townhouses and detached houses which make up the residential portion of the city centre.

    Layout

    The layout of Adelaide, known as Light’s Vision, features a cardinal direction grid pattern of wide streets and terraces and five large public squares: Victoria Square in the centre of the city, and Hindmarsh, Light, Hurtle and Whitmore Squares in the centres of each of the four quadrants of the Adelaide city centre. These squares occupy 32 of the 700 numbered “town acre” allotments on Light’s plan.

    All east-west roads change their names as they cross King William Street, except for North and South terraces.[6] They also alternate between being wide and narrow, 99 and 66 feet (30 and 20 m), except for the central Grote and Wakefield which are extra-wide, 132 feet (40 m),[7] along with the surrounding four terraces.[8] In the south half of the city, in several places the Adelaide City Council has constructed wide footpaths and road markings to restrict traffic to a lesser number of lanes than the full width of the road could support.[citation needed]

    The street pairs, design widths, and town acres in Light’s Vision are illustrated in this diagram:

     
    W
    e
    s
    t

    T
    e
    r
    r
    a
    c
    e

    North Terrace
    E
    a
    s
    t

    T
    c
    e

    132 ft
    12345678 M
    o
    r

    910111213141516 K
    i
    n
    g

     
    1718192021222324 P
    u
    l

    25262728293031
    62616059585756555453525150494847464544434241403938373635343332
    Hindley
    Street
    Rundle
    Street
    66 ft
    63646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293
    124123122121120119118Light

    Square

    115114113112111110109108107106105104103102Hind-
    marsh
    Square

    999897969594
    Currie
    Street
    Grenfell
    Street
    99 ft
    125126127128129130131134135136137138139140141142143144145146147150151152153154155
    186185184183182181180177176175174173172171170169168167166165164161160159158157156
    Waymouth
    p
    h
    e
    t
    t

     
    Street
    Pirie
    t
    e
    n
    e
    y

     
    Street


    66 ft
    187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218H
    u
    t
    t

    S
    t
    r
    e
    e
    t

    219
    252251250249248247246245244243242241240239238237236235234233232231230229228227226225224223222221220
    Franklin
    Street
    Flinders
    Street


    99 ft
    253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267Victoria

    Square

    270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286
    320319318317316315314313312311310309308307306303302301300299298297296295294293292291290289288287
    Grote Street
    Wakefield Street


    132 ft
    321322323324325326327328B
    r
    o
    w
    n

    329330331332333334335338339340341342343344H
    a
    n
    s
    o
    n

    345346347348349350351352353354355356
    392391390389388387386385384383382381380379378375374373372371370369368367366365364363362361360359358357
    Gouger
    Street
    W
    i
    l
    l
    i
    a
    m

    S
    t

    Angas
    Street


    E
    a
    s
    t

    99 ft
    393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430
    468467466465464463462461460459458457456455454453452451450449448447446445444443442441440439438437436435434433432431
    Wright
    Street
    Carrington
    Street

    66 ft
    469470471472473474475Whit-
    more
    Square

    478479480481482483484485486487488489490491Hurtle

    Square

    494495496497498499500501502503504505506
    544543542541540539538535534533532531530529528527526525524523522519518517516515514513512511510509508507
    Sturt
    Street
    Halifax
    Street

    T
    c
    e

     
    99 ft
    545546547548549550551554555556557558559560561562563564565566567570571572573574575576577578579580581582583
    622621620619618617616615S
    t

    614613612611610609608607606605604603602601600599S
    t

    598597596595594593592591590589588587586585584
    Gilbert
    Street
    Gilles
    Street

    66 ft
    623624625626627628629630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661
    700699698697696695694693692691690689688687686685684683682681680679678677676675674673672671670669668667666665664663662
    South Terrace
    132 ft
     
                    132 ft
    99 ft
    132 ft
    99 ft
    132 ft
    132 ft
                    (width)

    Street names

    Architectural detail of the Adelaide General Post Office on King William Street

    The streets and squares were named by a committee of a number of prominent settlers after themselves, after early directors of the South Australian Company, after Commissioners appointed by the British government to oversee implementation of the acts that established the colony, and after various notables involved in the establishment of the colony.

    The Street Naming Committee comprised:[9]

    All members of the committee (except Stephens) had one or more of the streets and squares in the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide named after themselves. Brown Street, named for John Brown, was subsequently subsumed as a continuation of Morphett Street in 1967. In the same year, Hanson Street, named for Richard Hanson, was subsumed as a continuation of Pulteney Street.

    The squares were named after:

    The east-west streets named on 22 December 1836 were:[12]

    Most of these people did not reside in or visit South Australia.

    The naming of the streets was completed on 23 May 1837[9] and gazetted on 3 June.[14]

    East-west streets:

    North-south streets:

    Population

    In the 2016 Census, there were 15,115 people in the Adelaide city centre, of whom 38.8% were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were China 17.5%, Malaysia 4.4%, England 3.4%, Hong Kong 2.8% and India 1.9%. 44.6% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 19.6%, Cantonese 4.9%, Arabic 1.9%, Korean 1.9% and Vietnamese 1.1%. The most common response for religion in Adelaide was ‘No Religion’ at 47.7% of the population.[1]

    Politics

    At federal level, Adelaide is within the Division of Adelaide, a marginal seat which historically has alternated between the Liberal and Labor parties. It has been held since 2004 by Kate Ellis of the Labor party.[16]

    In the South Australian House of Assembly, Adelaide is within the Electoral district of Adelaide. Since the March 2010 state election, the seat has been held by Rachel Sanderson of the Liberal party.

    Culture

    The interior of the Mortlock Wing at the State Library of South Australia

    Adelaide’s cultural and entertainment precincts/venues are generally concentrated in the city centre. They include the Convention Centre, Entertainment Centre and the redeveloped Adelaide Oval. Additionally, the Adelaide Festival and Adelaide Fringe Festival are held within Adelaide’s city centre during February and March. This time is known as “Mad March”, due to the large number of other cultural festivities at the same time, including the Adelaide 500 and WOMADelaide. North Terrace is considered Adelaide’s “cultural boulevard” because of its tight concentration of galleries and museums.

    Gallery

    Part of Adelaide CBD at night. (Looking east from Bentham Street, with Waymouth Street to the left, 2014

    Pictures of Adelaide city centre skyline

    From the North
    From the East
    From the South (West -> East)
    From the West

    See also

    Notes

    1. ^ a b c Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). “Adelaide (State Suburb)”. 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 23 November 2017. Edit this at Wikidata

    2. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). “Adelaide (State Suburb)”. 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 25 January 2015. Edit this at Wikidata

    3. ^ “Eastern Adelaide SA Government region” (PDF). The Government of South Australia. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
    4. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). “Adelaide (State Suburb)”. 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
    5. ^ “Tarndanya”, KauranaPlaceNames.com. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
    6. ^ Royal Automobile Association. “Adelaide CBD & North Adelaide” (PDF). Retrieved 7 December 2014. This map, showing the Adelaide city centre, North Adelaide and the Adelaide Parklands, was published on the website “soul underground”.
    7. ^ Elgar, Frederic (1863). Handbook to the Colony of South Australia. London: “Australian and New Zealand Gazette” Office. p. 3. Retrieved 8 December 2014. … principal north and south streets (from 99 to 132 feet wide) being nearly one mile in length, and the east and west streets (from 66 to 132 feet wide) from a mile and a quarter to a mile and three quarters.
    8. ^ Margaret Anderson (31 December 2013). “Light’s Plan of Adelaide 1837”. adelaidia.sa.gov.au. History SA. Retrieved 5 May 2018.The page contains a copy of one of the two surviving original plans drawn in 1837. Quote: “It is a watercolour and ink plan, drawn by 16-year-old draughtsman Robert George Thomas to instructions from Light. … The streets were named by a Street Naming Committee that met on 23 May 1837, indicating that this plan must have been completed after that date.”
    9. ^ a b “The Street Naming Committee”. HistorySouthAustralia.net. 30 September 2001. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
    10. ^ The Colonial Storekeeper, like the Colonial Secretary, was an official position.
    11. ^ “Stephens, Edward (1811-1861)”. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. 1967. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
    12. ^ “City Streets named 22 December 1836”. SAHistorians.org.au.
    13. ^ Daniel Bell Wakefield should not to be confused with his uncle, Daniel Wakefield. Note that the street is named after him, not after his better known brother Edward Gibbon Wakefield – Refer Wakefield Street in “Streets Named on the 23rd May, 1837”, HistorySouthAustralia.net.
    14. ^ “City of Adelaide municipal year book”. Adelaide: Adelaide City Council. 1972: 57, 70.
    15. ^ a b Spence & Beams (2006) p.33
    16. ^ Antony Green (27 December 2007). “Adelaide (Inner City) – Green Guide”. ABC News Online – Elections. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 January 2009.

    References

    1. Spence, Catherine Helen; Beams, Maryan (2006). Susan Magarey; Barbara Wall; Maryan Beams; Mary Lyons, eds. Ever yours, C.H. Spence: Catherine Helen Spence’s An autobiography (1825-1910), Diary (1894) and Some correspondence (1894-1910). Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-656-1.

    Coordinates: 34°55′44″S 138°36′04″E / 34.929°S 138.601°E / -34.929; 138.601


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