The river rises on the western side of the Liverpool Range on south slopes of Great Dividing Range, north of Cassilis and flows generally south west, joined by fifteen tributaries, including the Coolaburragundy River, and reaching its confluence with the Macquarie River near Dubbo; descending 876 metres (2,874 ft) over its 277 kilometres (172 mi) course.
The river flows through the Dunedoo and is noted for its influence on flood, particularly for its capacity for rapid rise and fall, due to the wide catchment, and the effect of its flood water on Dubbo.
The Talbragar River was first encountered by Europeans in the late 1820s when it was called the . The first bridge over the Talbragar was built in the 1850s, near Dunedoo, by Thomas New.
- "Map of Talbragar River". Bonzle.com. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "Macquarie-Bogan River catchment" (map). Office of Environment and Heritage. Government of New South Wales.