Coffs Harbour is a city on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia, 540 km (340 mi) north of Sydney, and 390 km (240 mi) south of Brisbane. It is one of the largest urban centres on the North Coast, with an estimated population of 71,822 in 2018.
Coffs Harbour's economy was once based mainly on bananas, now being superseded by blueberries as well as tourism and fishing. The wider region is known as the Bananacoast.
The city has a campus of Southern Cross University, a public and a private hospital, several radio stations, and three major shopping centres. Coffs Harbour is near numerous national parks, including a marine national park.
There are regular passenger flights each day to Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane departing from Coffs Harbour Airport. Coffs Harbour is also accessible by road, by NSW TrainLink, and by regular bus services.
Coffs Harbour is a regional city along the Pacific Highway between Newcastle and the Gold Coast. It has become a major service centre for those living between South West Rocks in the south and Grafton to the north.
Sawtell, 10 km south along Hogbin Drive from the city has become a of Coffs Harbour; it is increasingly referred to as being part of the city instead of its own entity as a town.
The surrounding region is dominated by coastal resorts and apartments with hinterland hills and mountains covered by forests, banana plantations, and other farms. It is the only place in New South Wales where the Great Dividing Range meets the Pacific Ocean.
The greater Coffs Harbour city is broken up into several suburb and precinct areas including:
The city is surrounded by outlying towns which are referred to by locals as suburbs of the :
The traditional owners of the Coffs Harbour region are the Gumbaynggirr people, who have occupied this land for thousands of years, forming one of the largest coastal Aboriginal Nations in New South Wales. Their Nation stretches from the Nambucca River in the south to around the Clarence River in the north and to the Great Dividing Range in the west. Their history is a long and fascinating one, which is remembered by the people and imprinted on the very land itself.
By the early 1900s, the Coffs Harbour area had become an important timber production centre. Before the opening of the North Coast railway line, the only way to transport large items of heavy but low value, such as timber, was by coastal shipping. This meant sawmillers on the North Coast were dependent on jetties either in rivers or off beaches for exporting their timber. Timber tramways were constructed to connect the timber-getting areas, the sawmills and jetties built into the ocean at Coffs Harbour.
Coffs Harbour owes its name to John Korff, who named the area Korff's Harbour when he was forced to take shelter from a storm in the area in 1847. The name was accidentally changed by the surveyor for the crown when he reserved land in the area during 1861.
Coffs Harbour has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
According to the 2016 Census the population of the suburb of Coffs Harbour is 25,752. This is an increase from 24,581 in 2011. 52.5% of the population is female in contrast to the national average of 50.7%. The average age is 43, which is higher than the national average of 38. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.6% of the population.
75.5% of residents reported being born in Australia; higher than the national average of 66.7%. Other than Australia the most common countries of birth are England (3.2%), New Zealand (1.3%), Myanmar (1.1%), India (0.9%) and Germany (0.5%). 62.2% of residents also reported both their parents being born in Australia, considerably higher than the national average of 47.3%. 82.1% of people spoke only English at home.
The top religious response in Coffs Harbour are Catholic 20.0%, Anglican 17.9% and Presbyterian and Reformed 3.9%. 29.3% declared no religion and 11.1% did not submit a response.
Coffs Harbour has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to the Köppen climate classification system) with marked seasonality of rainfall. The city is relatively sunny, receiving 122.1 clear days annually, higher than Brisbane and Cairns but not as sunny as Townsville. Summers are moderately hot, wet and humid. Winters are mild with moderate rainfall.
|Climate data for Coffs Harbour (Coffs Harbour Meteorological Office, 1991-2015, extremes 1943–2015)|
|Record high °C (°F)||43.3
|Average high °C (°F)||27.4
|Average low °C (°F)||19.8
|Record low °C (°F)||11.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||187.5
|Average precipitation days||15.0||15.0||16.6||12.5||11.6||10.1||8.0||7.7||8.1||11.1||12.2||13.7||141.6|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||69||71||69||65||62||59||54||53||57||63||65||68||63|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||235.6||204.4||220.1||216.0||207.7||198.0||223.2||257.3||255.0||251.1||237.0||244.9||2,750.3|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||7.6||7.3||7.1||7.2||6.7||6.6||7.2||8.3||8.5||8.1||7.9||7.9||7.5|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Coffs Harbour was the hub for a thriving banana industry. One of the biggest attractions is the Big Banana, one of the first of Australia's Big Things (it celebrated its 40th birthday in 2005), with the World's Largest Banana celebrating the region's best known export. There is also a popular underwater diving spot on a small natural reef.[vague]
The Coffs Harbour Jetty is an historically important timber wharf where coastal shipping once moved the timber from the hinterland. The jetty area is the subject of current planning[when?] by Council and consultants to develop a cultural precinct and rejuvenated residential area.
Nearby, the Solitary Islands Marine Park preserves a diverse underwater ecosystem that mirrors the terrestrial biodiversity, covering the southern limit of northern tropical species and the northern limits of the southern temperate species. Muttonbird Island is accessible by walking along the breakwater from the harbour, with the nature reserve protecting a significant wedge-tailed shearwater breeding site. The Muttonbird Island footpath leads to a viewing platform where whales are often spotted between June and November.
There are many national parks, reserves and marine parks surrounding the city, including:
- Bellinger River National Park (west of Bellingen in the Bellinger headwaters)
- Bindarri National Park (20 km west of the city, near Ulong and Dairyville)
- Bongil Bongil National Park (south of Sawtell)
- Cascade National Park (north of Dorrigo)
- Coffs Coast Regional Park (beachside reserves and parks along the Coffs Coast)
- Dorrigo National Park (just south of the Dorrigo township)
- Hayden Dent Nature Reserve (northwest of Coffs Harbour)
- Junuy Juluum National Park (north of Dorrigo)
- Moonee Beach Nature Reserve (Moonee Beach-Emerald Beach)
- Nymboi-Binderay National Park (north of Dorrigo, east of Glenreigh, on the Nymboida River)
- Solitary Islands Marine Park (in the Tasman Sea from Coffs Harbour to Wooli)
- South Solitary Island (18 km NE from Coffs Harbour in the Marine Park)
- Ulidarra National Park (Bruxner Park and Mount Coramba area)
- Yuraygir National Park (stretching from Yamba to Red Rock and west along the Coast Range)
The town's water supply comes from the nearby Orara River at Cochranes Pool and is supplemented by the Nymboida River. The city hosts the Coffs Harbour Regional Botanic Garden.
Coffs Harbour is home to the Coffs Harbour Education Campus (CHEC) which is a partnership between the Southern Cross University, TAFE and the Coffs Harbour Senior College. Other universities include the University of New South Wales Rural Clinical School located on the Coffs Harbour Health Campus. Australian Catholic University, Rural Education (REZ). Local state and private high schools include Coffs Harbour, Woolgoolga, Orara, Toormina, John Paul College, Coffs Harbour Christian Community, Bishop Druitt College and the Coffs Harbour Senior College.
Primary schools include; Boambee, Bonville, Coffs Harbour Public, Coramba, Corindi, Crossmaglen, Karangi, Kororo, Lowanna, Mullaway, Nana Glen, Narranga, Upper Orara, Sandy Beach, Sawtell, Toormina, Tyalla, Ulong, William Bayldon and Woolgoolga Public School. Private primary schools in the area include; Mary Help of Christians, St Augustine's and St Francis Xavier's.
Defunct primary schools
- Brooklana Public – 1920–49
- Bucca Central Public – 1910–63
- Bucca Lower Public (Formerly Bucca Creek until May 1919) – 1896–1978
- Corindi Creek Public – 1920–62
- Timmsvale Public – 1928–70
- Yalbillinga Special School (Amalgamated with Coffs Harbour PS) – 1965–93
- Casuarina School for Steiner Education
- Bishop Druitt College
- Coffs Harbour Bible Church School
- Coffs Harbour Christian Community School
Special schools are public schools designed for children or youth with chronic disabilities or who for other reasons cannot be accommodated in the comprehensive school system. Coffs Harbour Learning Centre is available for these students.
Cultural facilities and libraries
- St. John the Evangelist Anglican Church, McLean Street
- St. Augustines Catholic Church, Gordon Street
- Life House, Also Bible College
- C3 Church Coffs Harbour
- Harbourside Presbyterian Church
- Baptist Church, Cnr High & Curacoa
- Coffs Harbour Bible Church (Independent Baptist)
- Uniting Church, Vernon Street
- Church of Christ
- Seventh Day Adventist
- Abundant Life
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
- The Salvation Army
- Coffs Harbour Regional Gallery
- Bunker Cartoon Gallery
- Coffs Harbour City Library and Information Service – with branches at Coffs Harbour, Toormina and Woolgoolga
- Coffs Harbour Education Campus Library
- Family History Library – Rose Avenue
- Coffs Harbour Regional Museum
- Jetty Memorial Theatre
The Pacific Highway cuts through the centre of the city, and a proposed highway bypass will deviate at a number of places including Bonville, the North Boambee Valley to the west of Coffs Harbour and north of Arrawarra to Wells Crossing. Current plans and a commitment from the state government have ensured that the bypass will go ahead with tunnels and not cuttings as was previously proposed.
- The Coffs Coast Advocate – The Advocate newspaper is published on Wednesdays and Saturdays and is delivered free to all homes. The newspaper also uses online publishing, with articles appearing online daily. An online index of articles between 1993 and 2004 and selected articles dating back to 1900 is maintained by the Coffs Harbour City Library, though only articles relating to Coffs Harbour and its people are indexed.
- Coffs Coast Independent – Weekly full-colour newspaper delivered free each Thursday to all homes in the Coffs Harbour district, closed 2012.
- ABC, ABC Comedy, ABC Me, ABC News (public broadcaster)
- SBS, SBS Viceland, SBS Food, NITV (multicultural public broadcaster)
- NBN Television (Nine), 9Gem, 9Go!, 9Life (Nine Network owned and operated)
- Prime7, 7TWO, 7mate, 7flix (Seven Network affiliate)
- WIN Television, 10 Bold, 10 Peach (Network Ten affiliate)
Of the three main commercial networks:
- NBN Television airs NBN News, a regional hour-long program including opt-outs for the Mid North Coast, every night at 6pm. It is broadcast from studios in Newcastle with reporters based at a local newsroom in the city.
- Prime7 News airs a half-hour local news bulletin for the North Coast at 6pm each weeknight. It is broadcast from studios in Canberra with reporters based at a local newsroom in the city.
- WIN Television airs short local news updates throughout the day, broadcast from its Wollongong studios.
- 106.3 Triple M – Part of Southern Cross Austereo, Triple M is heavily focused on the local Coffs Coast region, as well as shows such as Moffee For Breakfast, The Ray Hadley Morning Show, Arvos with Whitey and plays adult hits. The station was formerly known as 2CS FM until 15 December 2016
- Hit 105.5 – Part of Southern Cross Austereo, Hit 105.5 has a local Coffs Harbour Breakfast Show called the A.B & Ben Show.
Began in 1997 as a third commercial license for the Coffs Coast. The station was formerly known as Star FM until 15 December 2016.
- 2HC 639 AM – Music, news, talk format. Part of the Broadcast Operations Group's Super Network continuously relaying programs from 2SM in Sydney except for a local program broadcast from Coffs Harbour between 12 pm and 3 pm weekdays. The station was purchased by Bill Caralis in 2005.
- CHY FM 104.1
- Racing Radio 107.1 FM
- 2AIR FM 107.9
- Freedom FM 94.1
- RawFM 88.0 FM
Beaumonts, Busways, Forest Coach Lines, Newcombe and Sahdras all run service throughout Coffs Harbour and the surrounding areas. The various long-distance coach services which run along the east coast also stop at Coffs Harbour.
Forest Coach Lines runs frequent buses to the northern suburbs of Coffs Harbour and some less frequent services to Grafton.
Most of the Beaumonts buses in 2011 were bought by Newcombe, originally Beaumonts bus service ran in the Orara Valley carrying high school and primary school students from the city of Coffs Harbour to their rural homes.
|Preceding station||NSW TrainLink||Following station|
|NSW TrainLink North Coast||
Local taxis are run by Holiday Coast Transportation and operate as 13cabs.
The Coffs Harbour Aero Club on Aviation Drive supports private pilots. Flying lessons and discovery flights, as well as airwork and charter flights are available from the club, which is also working closely with local high schools to provide flying training for students.
The city has four clubs in the Country Rugby League of NSW's Group 2 rugby league competition; Coffs Harbour Comets, Sawtell Panthers, Woolgoolga Seahorses, and Orara Valley Axemen. All clubs offer entries in age groups ranging from under 7s to first grade. The Sawtell Panthers are the current champions[when?] in first grade and under 18s, and Woolgoolga Seahorses were runners up to the Port Macquarie Sharks in reserve grade.
There is a local Australian rules football competition with two clubs in the city; Coffs Harbour and Sawtell Saints.
There is also a men's and women's soccer league, two rugby union clubs (Coffs Harlequins and Southern Cross University), junior and senior basketball competitions and the representative Coffs Suns, field hockey and netball competitions.
In 2001, Coffs Harbour hosted the Oceania region's qualification matches for the 2002 FIFA World Cup. One these matches played at Coffs Harbour was the Australia 31–0 American Samoa game, which set a new world record for international association football's biggest ever win.
Pacific Bay Resort hosted 'Camp Wallaby' throughout the 2000s, in which the Wallabies called Coffs Harbour home.
The 2007 and 2013 City vs Country Rugby League representative fixtures were held in Coffs Harbour.
The city is home to the Coffs Harbour International Stadium, which has hosted FIFA World Cup Qualifiers and a Women's 2008 Beijing Olympics Qualification fixtures for the in soccer as well as some National Rugby League (NRL) pre-season fixtures and domestic one day cricket matches. Coffs Harbour is also known for a great place to skydive due to the hinterland views where The Great Dividing Range meets the sea.
The region has hosted international rallying through the 1970s through to the early 1980s. After that time, the events became part of the Australian Rally Championship and NSW Rally Championships. In 2010, it was announced that Coffs Harbour would be the host city for 2011 Rally Australia, a round of the FIA World Rally Championship. The rally used roads from the neighbouring Bellingen, and Nambucca Shires in addition to Coffs Harbour. The rally returned permanently to Coffs Harbour in 2013. In 2016, the rally will be run in November with a Super special Stage at the Coffs Jetty.[needs update]
Coffs Harbour is home to three locally grown sporting events attracting thousands of competitors each year: the Coffs Harbour Triathlon (bcu Coffs Tri), the Coffs Harbour running festival and the Coffs Ocean Swims, all raising money to local children's charities.
- Attila Abonyi – former Australian international Association football player who was capped 61 times for the Socceroos 
- Liz Cambage – basketball player
- Russell Crowe – actor
- Jon English – singer-songwriter-actor
- Michael Ennis – rugby league footballer
- Kevin Gordon – rugby league footballer
- Clint Greenshields – rugby league footballer
- David Helfgott – concert pianist
- Deborah Knight – news journalist for the Nine Network
- Wendy Matthews – singer
- Emma Moffatt – triathlete, Beijing Olympics bronze medallist
- George Negus – author, journalist, and current affairs presenter
- Ben Newton – paralympics gold medalist, wheelchair rugby player
- Dick Smith – entrepreneur
- Jack Thompson – AFI award-winning actor
- Christopher Dungay former Balmain Tiger, South Sydney Rabbitohs and Gold Coast Crusher Rugby League Player, also Captained/Coached Australian Aborigines Team 1992, current Macleay Valley Mustangs Player
- National Touch League (March)
- "International Charity Football Match", August 9, proceeds go to Wesley Mission for local homeless youth
- Ella7s (Australia's largest Indigenous Rugby Carnival) (March)
- Coffs Coast International Buskers Festival (October)
- Harmony Festival (March)
- Rally Australia (November)
- STILL: National Still Life Award (November)
- "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2017-18: Population Estimates by Significant Urban Area, 2008 to 2018". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018.
- 01 May 1987 – LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT 1919—PROCLAMATION – Trove Archived 14 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Trove.nla.gov.au (1 May 1987). Retrieved on 2017-02-13.
- "Coffs Harbour". Climate Averages for Australian Sites. Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 6 October 2006. Retrieved 24 November 2006.
- Coffs Harbour City Library – Catalogue – Full Display – Record 1 of 1. Coffsharbour.spydus.com (26 September 2003). Retrieved on 13 February 2017.
- Coffs Harbour Base Hospital ::: North Coast Area Health Service Archived 20 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Ncahs.nsw.gov.au (27 September 2007). Retrieved on 18 August 2011.
- Arrivals and Departures Archived 10 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Coffs Coast (20 December 2016). Retrieved on 13 February 2017.
- "Coffs Harbour Area". Destination NSW. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "FACT SHEET 1 Gumbaynggirr Nation" (PDF). Arrawarra Sharing Culture. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- The Timber Tramways of Coffs Harbour Longworth, Jim Australian Railway History, June 2006 pp 214–223
- "Australian Dictionary of Biography". Archived from the original on 24 July 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- "Ferguson's Cottage". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01802. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "2016 Census QuickStats: Coffs Harbour". www.censusdata.ABS.gov.au. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Coffs Harbour Meteorological Office". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- Styles, Talia. "5 Reasons to Visit Australia's Best Town of 2020: Coff's Harbour". Hunter and Bligh. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Coffs Harbour City Library – Local Heritage Resources Archived 16 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Coffs Coast news, weather, sport and local classifieds Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Coffs Coast Advocate. Retrieved on 13 February 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Fly Corporate". Archived from the original on 11 March 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- World Cup: Australia score 31 in World Cup Archived 29 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Telegraph (11 April 2001). Retrieved on 18 August 2011.
- The Hungarian Socceroo Archived 14 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. behindthegame.com.au
- "Local Builders Win Top Awards". Coffs Coast Advocate. North Coast News. 6 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- Aboriginal history of the Coffs Harbour region / compiled by Coffs Harbour City Library by Liz Thomas (2013)
- Coffs Harbour: Vol I: pre-1880 to 1945 / Neil Yeates (1990)
- Coffs Harbour: Vol II: 1946 – 1964 / Neil Yeates (1990)
- Coffs Harbour 100 years down the track / by Jean Donn-Patterson (not dated)
- The Coffs Harbour story (1976)
- The history of Coffs Harbour / Produced by Friends of Tourism & Coffs Harbour Historical Society (not dated)
- The Natural history of the Coffs Harbour District / Dept of Continuing Education, North Coast Regional Office, U.N.E. (1980)
- Remembering Coff's Harbour: a century of photographs / [edited by Arlene Hope and David Townsend] (2001)
- Ships and timber: a short history of Coffs Harbour port and associated railways / John Kramer (1984)
- Coffs Harbour travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Coffs Harbour City Council
- Our Stories: Coffs Coast Heritage